2Conflict may be understood as collision or disagreement. Conflict arises when individuals or groups encounter goals that both parties cannot obtain satisfactorily.Conflict may be:Within an individual;Between two individuals; orBetween two groups in an organization.
3We can define Conflict as a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about.
4Transitions in Conflict Thought Traditional View of ConflictThe belief that all conflict is harmful and must be avoided.Causes:Poor communicationLack of opennessFailure to respond to employee needs
5Human Relations View of Conflict The belief that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group.Interactionist View of ConflictThe belief that conflict is not only a positive force in a group but that it is absolutely necessary for a group to perform effectively.
6Functional versus Dysfunctional Conflict Conflict that supports the goals of the group and improves its performance.Dysfunctional ConflictConflict that hinders group performance.
7Consequences of Conflict Positive ConsequencesNegative ConsequencesLeads to new ideas.Stimulates creativity.Motivates Change.Promotes organizational vitality.Helps individuals and groups establish identities.Serves as a safety valve to indicate problems.Diverts energy from work.Threatens psychological well-being.Wastes resources.Creates a negative climate.Breaks down group cohesion.Can increase hostility and aggressive behaviours.
8Types of Conflict Task Conflict Conflicts over content and goals of the work.Relationship ConflictConflict based on interpersonal relationships.Process ConflictConflict over how work gets done.
9LEVELS OF CONFLICT Individual level Group level Organizational level
10Intra Individual Conflict All individuals have needs, which make them directed towards goals.The goals are individual as well as organizational, which are often not compatible.This leads to Intra Individual Conflict.Intra Individual ConflictGoal ConflictRole Conflict
11Goal Conflict Arises due to existence of two or more competing goals. Approach-Approach ConflictApproach-Avoidance ConflictAvoidance-Avoidance Conflict
12Role Conflict Conflict arising out of: Role Ambiguity Organizational PositionPersonal Characteristics
13Inter Personal Conflict Conflict among individuals.Occurs as a result of;Personality differencesPerceptionsClashes of values and interestsPower and status differencesScarce resourcesVertical ConflictHorizontal Conflict
14GROUP CONFLICT Conflict among groups. Sources: Incompatible goals Intra group ConflictIntergroup ConflictConflict among groups.Sources:Incompatible goalsTask InterdependenceResource SharingCompetitive rewards andincentive systemLine and staff conflictsDifferences in values andperceptionsHeterogeneity of membersCommunication distortionsParticipative decision makingLow formalizationGROUP CONFLICT
15ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL CONFLICT INTRAORGANIZATIONAL CONFLICTa. Formal –informal conflict.b. Line and staff conflict
16ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL CONFLICT INTERORGANIZATIONAL CONFLICTConditions for such conflict to exist:Two or more organizations must be aware of each otherDecision of one should affect the otherDecision of one must affect the image in such a way that one considers it as unfavorable
17Types of Inter-organizational conflict Management -governmentInter-management- disputes over patentsInter unionUnion governmentUnion management
18Purposes served by inter organizational conflicts Promotes bond of unity among organizational membersBrings new life to organizational objectives and valuesActs as an agency of social controlMakes the organizational members aware of the tactics and strategies of the antagonist.
20Stage I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility CommunicationSemantic difficulties, misunderstandings, and “noise”StructureSize and specialization of jobsJurisdictional clarity/ambiguityMember/goal incompatibilityLeadership styles (close or participative)Reward systems (win-lose)Dependence/interdependence of groups
21Personal Variables Differences in Perceptions Communication Problems Value and EthicsSkills and AbilitiesEmotionsPersonalitiesPersonality types
22Stage II: Cognition and Personalization Perceived Conflict Awareness by one or more parties of the existence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise.Felt Conflict Emotional involvement in a conflict creating anxiety, frustration, or hostility.
23Stage III: Intentions Intentions Decisions to act in a given way. Cooperativeness:Attempting to satisfy the other party’s concerns.Assertiveness:Attempting to satisfy one’s own concerns.
25CompetingA desire to satisfy one’s interests, regardless of the impact on the other party to the conflict.CollaboratingA situation in which the parties to a conflict each desire to satisfy fully the concerns of all parties.AvoidingThe desire to withdraw from or suppress a conflict.
26AccommodatingThe willingness of one party in a conflict to place the opponent’s interests above his or her own.CompromisingA situation in which each party to a conflict is willing to give up something.
28Stage IV: Behavior Conflict Management The use of resolution and stimulation techniques to achieve the desired level of conflict.
29Conflict Management Techniques Conflict Resolution TechniquesProblem solvingSuperordinate goalsExpansion of resourcesAvoidanceSmoothingCompromiseAuthoritative commandAltering the human variableAltering the structural variables
30Conflict Stimulation Techniques CommunicationBringing in outsidersRestructuring the organizationAppointing a devil’s advocate
31Stage V: Outcomes Functional Outcomes from Conflict Increased group performanceImproved quality of decisionsStimulation of creativity and innovationEncouragement of interest and curiosityProvision of a medium for problem-solvingCreation of an environment for self-evaluation and change
32Dysfunctional Outcomes from Conflict Development of discontentReduced group effectivenessRetarded communicationReduced group cohesivenessInfighting among group members overcomes group goals
33Preventing ConflictAssess positive and negative personality traits of people involvedDetermine personality typeAggressiveSubmissiveAssertiveAssess if people are introvert or extroverts...
34Review past conflictsAssess communication skills of those involvedRead body language of participants
35Try to reduce conflictRealize that communication is colored by personal experience, beliefs, fear, prejudicesTry to be neutralPlan the timing and place of the conversationRealize that outside stress may add to confrontationEliminate/reduce external interruptions
36Manage the language used Neutral vs. loaded wordsReduce technical languageAllow for cultural differences in languageWords may have different meanings for different people…ask them to elaborate