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Presentation on theme: "Conflict."— Presentation transcript:

1 Conflict

2 Conflict may be understood as collision or disagreement.
Conflict arises when individuals or groups encounter goals that both parties cannot obtain satisfactorily. Conflict may be: Within an individual; Between two individuals; or Between two groups in an organization.

3 We can define Conflict as a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about.

4 Transitions in Conflict Thought
Traditional View of Conflict The belief that all conflict is harmful and must be avoided. Causes: Poor communication Lack of openness Failure to respond to employee needs

5 Human Relations View of Conflict
The belief that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group. Interactionist View of Conflict The belief that conflict is not only a positive force in a group but that it is absolutely necessary for a group to perform effectively.

6 Functional versus Dysfunctional Conflict
Conflict that supports the goals of the group and improves its performance. Dysfunctional Conflict Conflict that hinders group performance.

7 Consequences of Conflict
Positive Consequences Negative Consequences Leads to new ideas. Stimulates creativity. Motivates Change. Promotes organizational vitality. Helps individuals and groups establish identities. Serves as a safety valve to indicate problems. Diverts energy from work. Threatens psychological well-being. Wastes resources. Creates a negative climate. Breaks down group cohesion. Can increase hostility and aggressive behaviours.

8 Types of Conflict Task Conflict
Conflicts over content and goals of the work. Relationship Conflict Conflict based on interpersonal relationships. Process Conflict Conflict over how work gets done.

9 LEVELS OF CONFLICT Individual level Group level Organizational level

10 Intra Individual Conflict
All individuals have needs, which make them directed towards goals. The goals are individual as well as organizational, which are often not compatible. This leads to Intra Individual Conflict. Intra Individual Conflict Goal Conflict Role Conflict

11 Goal Conflict Arises due to existence of two or more competing goals.
Approach-Approach Conflict Approach-Avoidance Conflict Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict

12 Role Conflict Conflict arising out of: Role Ambiguity
Organizational Position Personal Characteristics

13 Inter Personal Conflict
Conflict among individuals. Occurs as a result of; Personality differences Perceptions Clashes of values and interests Power and status differences Scarce resources Vertical Conflict Horizontal Conflict

14 GROUP CONFLICT Conflict among groups. Sources: Incompatible goals
Intra group Conflict Intergroup Conflict Conflict among groups. Sources: Incompatible goals Task Interdependence Resource Sharing Competitive rewards and incentive system Line and staff conflicts Differences in values and perceptions Heterogeneity of members Communication distortions Participative decision making Low formalization GROUP CONFLICT

INTRAORGANIZATIONAL CONFLICT a. Formal –informal conflict. b. Line and staff conflict

INTERORGANIZATIONAL CONFLICT Conditions for such conflict to exist: Two or more organizations must be aware of each other Decision of one should affect the other Decision of one must affect the image in such a way that one considers it as unfavorable

17 Types of Inter-organizational conflict
Management -government Inter-management- disputes over patents Inter union Union government Union management

18 Purposes served by inter organizational conflicts
Promotes bond of unity among organizational members Brings new life to organizational objectives and values Acts as an agency of social control Makes the organizational members aware of the tactics and strategies of the antagonist.

19 The Conflict Process

20 Stage I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility
Communication Semantic difficulties, misunderstandings, and “noise” Structure Size and specialization of jobs Jurisdictional clarity/ambiguity Member/goal incompatibility Leadership styles (close or participative) Reward systems (win-lose) Dependence/interdependence of groups

21 Personal Variables Differences in Perceptions Communication Problems
Value and Ethics Skills and Abilities Emotions Personalities Personality types

22 Stage II: Cognition and Personalization
Perceived Conflict Awareness by one or more parties of the existence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise. Felt Conflict Emotional involvement in a conflict creating anxiety, frustration, or hostility.

23 Stage III: Intentions Intentions Decisions to act in a given way.
Cooperativeness: Attempting to satisfy the other party’s concerns. Assertiveness: Attempting to satisfy one’s own concerns.

24 Dimensions of Conflict-Handling Intentions

25 Competing A desire to satisfy one’s interests, regardless of the impact on the other party to the conflict. Collaborating A situation in which the parties to a conflict each desire to satisfy fully the concerns of all parties. Avoiding The desire to withdraw from or suppress a conflict.

26 Accommodating The willingness of one party in a conflict to place the opponent’s interests above his or her own. Compromising A situation in which each party to a conflict is willing to give up something.

27 Conflict and Unit Performance

28 Stage IV: Behavior Conflict Management
The use of resolution and stimulation techniques to achieve the desired level of conflict.

29 Conflict Management Techniques
Conflict Resolution Techniques Problem solving Superordinate goals Expansion of resources Avoidance Smoothing Compromise Authoritative command Altering the human variable Altering the structural variables

30 Conflict Stimulation Techniques
Communication Bringing in outsiders Restructuring the organization Appointing a devil’s advocate

31 Stage V: Outcomes Functional Outcomes from Conflict
Increased group performance Improved quality of decisions Stimulation of creativity and innovation Encouragement of interest and curiosity Provision of a medium for problem-solving Creation of an environment for self-evaluation and change

32 Dysfunctional Outcomes from Conflict
Development of discontent Reduced group effectiveness Retarded communication Reduced group cohesiveness Infighting among group members overcomes group goals

33 Preventing Conflict Assess positive and negative personality traits of people involved Determine personality type Aggressive Submissive Assertive Assess if people are introvert or extroverts...

34 Review past conflicts Assess communication skills of those involved Read body language of participants

35 Try to reduce conflict Realize that communication is colored by personal experience, beliefs, fear, prejudices Try to be neutral Plan the timing and place of the conversation Realize that outside stress may add to confrontation Eliminate/reduce external interruptions

36 Manage the language used
Neutral vs. loaded words Reduce technical language Allow for cultural differences in language Words may have different meanings for different people…ask them to elaborate

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