Presentation on theme: "Attitude Measurement (Source: W.G Zikmund, B.J Babin, J.C Carr and M. Griffin, Business Research Methods, 8th Edition, U.S, South-Western Cengage Learning,"— Presentation transcript:
1 Attitude Measurement(Source: W.G Zikmund, B.J Babin, J.C Carr and M. Griffin, Business Research Methods, 8th Edition, U.S, South-Western Cengage Learning, 2008)
2 Objectives Describe how business researchers think of attitudes Identify basic approaches to measuring attitudesDiscuss the use of rating scales for measuring attitudesRepresent a latent construct by constructing a summated scaleSummarize ways to measure attitudes with ranking and sorting techniques
3 What is An Attitude? Attitude An enduring disposition to consistently respond in a given manner to various aspects of the world.Components of attitudes:Affective ComponentThe feelings or emotions toward an objectCognitive ComponentKnowledge and beliefs about an objectBehavioral ComponentPredisposition to actionIntentionsBehavioral expectations
4 Techniques for Measuring Attitudes RankingRequiring the respondent to rank order objects in overall performance on the basis of a characteristic or stimulus.RatingAsking the respondent to estimate the magnitude of a characteristic, or quality, that an object possesses by indicating on a scale where he or she would rate an object.
5 Techniques for Measuring Attitudes SortingPresenting the respondent with several concepts typed on cards and requiring the respondent to arrange the cards into a number of piles or otherwise classify the concepts.ChoiceAsking a respondent to choose one alternative from among several alternatives; it is assumed that the chosen alternative is preferred over the others.
6 Attitude Rating Scales Simple Attitude ScaleRequires that an individual agree/disagree with a statement or respond to a single question.This type of self-rating scale classifies respondents into one of two categories (e.g., yes or no).Example:THE PRESIDENT SHOULD RUN FOR RE-ELECTION_______ AGREE ______ DISAGREE
7 Attitude Rating Scales (cont’d) Category ScaleA more sensitive measure than a simple scale in that it can have more than two response categories.Question construction is an extremely important factor in increasing the usefulness of these scales.Example:How important were the following in your decision to visit San Diego? (check one for each item)VERY SOMEWHAT NOT TOOIMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANTCLIMATE ___________ ___________ ___________COST OF TRAVEL ___________ ___________ ___________FAMILY ORIENTED ___________ ___________ ___________EDUCATIONAL/HISTORICAL ASPECTS ___________ ___________ ___________FAMILIARITY WITH AREA ___________ ___________ ___________
9 Attitude Rating Scales (cont’d) Likert ScaleA popular means for measuring attitudes.Respondents indicate their own attitudes by checking how strongly they agree or disagree with statements.Typical response alternatives: “strongly agree,” “agree,” “uncertain,” “disagree,” and “strongly disagree.”Example:It is more fun to play a tough, competitive tennis match than to play an easy one.___Strongly Agree ___Agree ___Not Sure ___Disagree ___Strongly Disagree
10 Attitude Rating Scales (cont’d) Semantic DifferentialA series of seven-point rating scales with bipolar adjectives, such as “good” and “bad,” anchoring the ends (or poles) of the scale.A weight is assigned to each position on the scale. Traditionally, scores are 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, or +3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3.Example:Exciting ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ CalmInteresting ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ DullSimple ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ ComplexPassive ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ Active
11 Semantic Differential Scales for Measuring Attitudes Toward Supermarkets
12 Other Scale Types (cont’d) Image ProfileA graphic representation of semantic differential data for competing brands, products, or stores to highlight comparisons.Because the data are assumed to be interval, either the arithmetic mean or the median will be used to compare the profile of one product, brand, or store with that of a competing product, brand, or store.
13 Image Profiles of Commuter Airlines versus Major Airlines
14 Attitude Rating Scales (cont’d) Numerical ScalesScales that have numbers as response options, rather than “semantic space” or verbal descriptions, to identify categories (response positions).In practice, researchers have found that a scale with numerical labels for intermediate points on the scale is as effective a measure as the true semantic differential.Example:Now that you’ve had your automobile for about one year, please tell us how satisfied you are with your Ford Taurus. Extremely Dissatisfied Extremely Satisfied
15 Other Scale Types (cont’d) Stapel ScaleUses a single adjective as a substitute for the semantic differential when it is difficult to create pairs of bipolar adjectives.Tends to be easier to conduct and administer than a semantic differential scale.
17 Other Scale Types (cont’d) Constant-Sum ScaleRespondents are asked to divide a constant sum to indicate the relative importance of attributes.Respondents often sort cards, but the task may also be a rating task (e.g., indicating brand preference).Example:Divide 100 points among each of the following brands according to your preference for the brand:Brand A _________Brand B _________Brand C _________
18 Other Scale Types (cont’d) Graphic Rating ScaleA measure of attitude that allows respondents to rate an object by choosing any point along a graphic continuum.Advantage:Allows the researcher to choose any interval desired for scoring purposes.Disadvantage:There are no standard answers.
21 Graphic Rating Scale with Picture Response Categories Stressing Visual Communication
22 Summary of Advantages and Disadvantages of Rating Scales
23 Measuring Behavioral Intention Behavioral ComponentThe behavioral expectations (expected future actions) of an individual toward an attitudinal object.Example:How likely is it that you will purchase a Honda Fit?I definitely will buyI probably will buyI might buyI probably will not buyI definitely will not buy
24 Measuring Behavioral Intention Behavioral DifferentialA rating scale instrument similar to a semantic differential, developed to measure the behavioral intentions of subjects toward future actions.A description of the object to be judged is placed on the top of a sheet, and the subjects indicate their behavioral intentions toward this object on a series of scales.Example: A 25 year-old woman sales representative Would ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : Would Not ask this person for advice.
25 RankingAn ordinal scale may be developed by asking respondents to rank order (from most preferred to least preferred) a set of objects or attributes.Paired comparisonsSorting
26 Paired ComparisonA measurement technique that involves presenting the respondent with two objects and asking the respondent to pick the preferred object; more than two objects may be presented, but comparisons are made in pairs.Number of comparisons = [(n)(n-1)/2]Example:I would like to know your overall opinion of two brands of adhesive bandages. They are MedBand and Super-Aid. Overall, which of these two brands—MedBand or Super-Aid—do you think is the better one? Or are both the same?MedBand is better _____Super-Aid is better _____They are the same _____
27 SortingRequire that respondents indicate their attitudes or beliefs by arranging items on the basis of perceived similarity or some other attribute.Example:Here is a sheet that lists several airlines. Next to the name of each airline is a pocket. Here are ten cards. I would like you to put these cards in the pockets next to the airlines you would prefer to fly on your next trip. Assume that all of the airlines fly to wherever you would choose to travel. You can put as many cards as you want next to an airline, or you can put no cards next to an airline.CardsAmerican Airlines _____Delta Airlines _____United Airlines _____Southwest Airlines _____Northwest Airlines _____
28 Selecting a Measurement Scale Some Practical Questions:Is a ranking, sorting, rating, or choice technique best?Should a monadic or a comparative scale be used?What type of category labels, if any, will be used for the rating scale?How many scale categories or response positions are needed to accurately measure an attitude?Should a balanced or unbalanced rating scale be chosen?Should a scale that forces a choice among predetermined options be used?Should a single measure or an index measure be used?
29 Selecting a Measurement Scale (cont’d) Monadic Rating ScaleAsks about a single concept in isolation.The respondent is not given a specific frame of reference.Example:Now that you’ve had your automobile for about 1 year, please tell us how satisfied you are with its engine power and pickup.
30 Selecting a Measurement Scale (cont’d) Comparative Rating ScaleAsks respondents to rate a concept in comparison with a benchmark explicitly used as a frame of reference.Example:Please indicate how the amount of authority in your present position compares with the amount of authority that would be ideal for this position.TOO MUCH ABOUT RIGHT TOO LITTLE
31 Selecting a Measurement Scale (cont’d) What Type of Category Labels, If Any?Verbal labels for response categories help respondents better understand the response positions.The maturity and educational levels of the respondents will influence the labeling decision.How Many Scale Categories or Response Positions?Five to eight points are optimal for sensitivity.The researcher must determine the number of positions that is best for the specific project.
32 Selecting a Measurement Scale (cont’d) Balanced Rating ScaleA fixed-alternative rating scale with an equal number of positive and negative categories; a neutral point or point of indifference is at the center of the scale.Example:Very Neither Satisfied VerySatisfied Satisfied Nor Dissatisfied Dissatisfied DissatisfiedHow satisfied are you with the bookstore in the Student Union?
33 Selecting a Measurement Scale (cont’d) Unbalanced Rating ScaleA fixed-alternative rating scale that has more response categories at one end than the other resulting in an unequal number of positive and negative categories.Example:Neither Satisfied VerySatisfied Nor Dissatisfied Dissatisfied DissatisfiedHow satisfied are you with the bookstore in the Student Union?
34 Selecting a Measurement Scale (cont’d) Forced-choice Rating ScaleA fixed-alternative rating scale that requires respondents to choose one of the fixed alternatives.Non-forced Choice ScaleA fixed-alternative rating scale that provides a “no opinion” category or that allows respondents to indicate that they cannot say which alternative is their choice.
35 Selecting a Measurement Scale (cont’d) Factors affecting the choice of using a single measure or an index measure:The complexity of the issue to be investigated.The number of dimensions the issue contains.Whether individual attributes of the stimulus are part of a holistic attitude or are seen as separate items.The researcher’s conceptual (problem) definition will be helpful in making this choice.