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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 9-1 Chapter Nine Measurement and Scaling: Noncomparative Scaling Techniques
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc ) Chapter Outline 1) Overview 2) Noncomparative Scaling Techniques 3) Continuous Rating Scale 4) Itemized Rating Scale 5) Basic Noncomparative Scales 6) Scale Evaluation
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc ) Noncomparative Scaling Techniques Noncomparative Scaling Techniques: Respondents evaluate only one object at a time, and for this reason non-comparative scales are often referred to as monadic scales. Non-comparative techniques consist of: Continuous rating scales, and Itemized rating scales.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc ) Continuous Rating Scale Example of a Continuous Rating Scale: Respondents rate the objects by placing a mark at the appropriate position on a line that runs from one extreme of the criterion variable to the other. How would you rate Sears as a department store? Version 1 Probably the worst I Probably the best Version 2 Probably the worst I Probably the best Version 3 Very bad Neither good Very good nor bad Probably the worst I Probably the best
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc ) Itemized Rating Scales Itemized Rating Scale: Respondents are provided with a scale that has a number (e.g. 1-7) or brief descriptions associated with each category. The categories are ordered in terms of scale position, and the respondents are required to select the specified category that best describes the object being rated.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc ) Some Common Itemized Rating Scales Used in Marketing CONSTRUCT SCALE DESCRIPTORS Attitude Importance Satisfaction Purchase Intent Purchase Freq Very Bad Not at All Import. Very Dissatisfied Definitely will Not Buy Never Bad Not Important Dissatisfied Probably Will Not Buy Rarely Neither Bad Nor Good Neutral Neither Dissat. Nor Satisfied Might or Might Not Buy Sometimes Good Important Satisfied Probably Will Buy Often Very Good Very Important Very Satisfied Definitely Will Buy Very Often Itemized Rating Scales:
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 9-7 Cheer detergent is: Cheer detergent is: 1) Very harsh Very gentle 2) Very harsh Very gentle 3). Very harsh.. Neither harsh nor gentle.. Very gentle 4) ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ Very Harsh Somewhat Neither harsh Somewhat Gentle Very harsh harsh nor gentle gentle gentle 5) Very Neither harsh Very harsh nor gentle gentle Cheer Rating Scales can take on many different physical forms: 4) Itemized Rating Scales: Configurations
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc ) Itemized Rating Scales: Types The commonly used itemized rating scales are: Likert scale Example: Strongly disagree, Disagree, Neither agree nor disagree, Agree, Strongly agree Semantic differential scale Example: Extremely bad, Bad, Neither bad nor good, Good, Extremely good Stapel scale Example: +5, +4, +3, +2, +1, useful, -1, -2, -3, -4, -5
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc ) Itemized Rating Scales: Likert Scale The Likert scale requires the respondents to indicate a degree of agreement or disagreement with each of a series of statements about the stimulus objects. Strongly Disagree Neither AgreeStrongly disagree agree nor agree disagree 1. Sears sells high-quality merchandise Sears has poor in-store service I like to shop at Sears The analysis can be conducted on an item-by-item basis (profile analysis), or a total (summated) score can be calculated. Only sum the scores if you believe the questions are related. When arriving at a total score, the categories assigned to the negative statements by the respondents should be scored by reversing the scale.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc ) Itemized Rating Scales: Semantic Differential Scale The semantic differential is a five or seven-point rating scale with end points associated with bipolar labels that have semantic meaning. SEARS IS: Powerful Weak Unreliable --:--:--:--:--:--:--: Reliable Modern --:--:--:--:--: Old-fashioned The negative adjective or phrase usually appears at the left side of the scale and, sporadically, at the right. This controls the tendency of some respondents to mark the right- or left-hand sides without reading the labels.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc ) Itemized Rating Scales: Semantic Differential Scale 1) Rugged :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Delicate 2) Excitable :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Calm 3) Uncomfortable :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Comfortable 4) Dominating :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Submissive 5) Thrifty :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Indulgent 6) Pleasant :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Unpleasant 7) Contemporary :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Obsolete 8) Organized:---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Unorganized 9) Rational :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Emotional 10) Youthful :---:---:---:---:---:---:---: Mature Example: A Semantic Differential Scale for Measuring Self- Concepts, Person Concepts, and Product Concepts
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc ) Itemized Rating Scales: Stapel Scale The Stapel scale is a unipolar rating scale with ten categories numbered from -5 to +5, without a neutral point (zero). This scale is usually presented vertically. 1) Sears products are… 2) Sears has… HIGH QUALITY POOR SERVICE
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc Jovan Musk for Men is:Jovan Musk for Men is: Extremely goodExtremely good Very goodVery good Good Good BadSomewhat good Very bad Bad Extremely bad Very bad 4) Itemized Rating Scales: Unbalanced Scales Avoid Unbalanced Scales! They can skew results
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc ) Basic Noncomparative Scales: Comparison
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc Thermometer Scale Instructions: Please indicate how much you like McDonald’s hamburgers by coloring in the thermometer. Start at the bottom and color up to the temperature level that best indicates how strong your preference is. Smiling Face Scale Instructions: Please point to the face that shows how much you like the Barbie Doll. If you do not like the Barbie Doll at all, you would point to Face 1. If you liked it very much, you would point to Face Like very much Dislike very much ) Basic Noncomparative Scales: Other Forms
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc ) Scale Evaluation DiscriminantNomologicalConvergent Test/ Retest Alternative Forms Internal Consistency Content Criterion Construct Generalizability ReliabilityValidity Scale Evaluation
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc ) Scale Evaluation: Reliability First, we need reliability… Reliability: the extent to which a scale produces consistent results if repeated measures are made. Internal consistency reliability determines the extent to which different parts of a summated scale are consistent. The coefficient alpha, or Cronbach's alpha, is a measure of internal consistency reliability. This coefficient varies from 0 to 1, and a value of 0.6 or less generally indicates unsatisfactory internal consistency reliability. In SPSS: Analyze > Scale > Reliability Analysis...
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc ) Scale Evaluation: Validity Next, we need validity… The validity of a scale may be defined as the extent to which differences in observed scale scores reflect true differences (in other words, accuracy). Content validity, or face validity, is a subjective evaluation of how well the content of a scale represents the measurement task at hand.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc ) Scale Evaluation: Validity Construct validity addresses the question of what construct or variable the scale is measuring. Construct validity includes convergent validity and discriminant validity. Convergent validity is the extent to which the scale correlates positively with other measures of the same construct. E.g. the responses to the scales on slide 9-7 should correlate. Discriminant validity is the extent to which a measure does not correlate with other constructs from which it is supposed to differ.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc ) Scale Evaluation: Relationship Between Reliability and Validity If a measure is perfectly valid, it is also perfectly reliable. If a measure is unreliable, it cannot be perfectly valid. Thus, unreliability implies invalidity. If a measure is perfectly reliable, it may or may not be perfectly valid, because systematic error may still be present. Reliability is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for validity. In other words, you could be inaccurately measuring something consistently.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc ) Scale Evaluation: Generalizability Generalizability: the degree to which a study based on a sample applies to a universe of generalizations. For example: a researcher develops a scale that can predict customer shopping behaviors at The Gap during certain times of year. This scale could be generalized to other large clothing retailers, but probably not to grocery stores.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc Questions?? Thank You!!
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