Presentation on theme: "Political Cooperation and Conflict AP Human Geography."— Presentation transcript:
Political Cooperation and Conflict AP Human Geography
Overview In many cases, states are FRAGILE! Some states are held together by strong CENTRIPETAL FORCES While others are fractured by CENTRIFUGAL FORCES Throughout history, borders have shifted and they continue to do so today. In fact, most of the maps in your textbook (printed in 2010) are already out of date! ▫The country of Sudan broke into 2 in 2011.
Centripetal/ Centrifugal Forces Centripetal Forces- hold states together Centrifugal Forces- pull states apart Nationalism (flags, anthems, strong govt) Similar culture (religion, language, ethnicity, shared past, sports) Compact shape, good transport and communication Separatist movements Weak national govt. Internal boundary conflicts Cultural differences (religion, ethnicity, lang) Physical barriers, frag. or elong. states
Rugby and Mandela: Post-Apartheid Centripetal Forces in South Africa
Yugoslavia and Balkanization The former Yugoslavia is an excellent example of a multi-ethnic country that broke apart into many smaller nation-states. Where? Balkan Peninsula (SE Europe, north of Greece) When? Yugoslavia was created after WWI. Who? Many ethnic groups, inc. Bosnians, Albanians, Croats, Serbians, Slovenes. Also, different religions (Christianity, Islam) and languages. On paper, a recipe for conflict.
Yugoslavia and Balkanization Yugoslavia was held together by a strong dictator (centripetal force), Joseph (Josip) Tito from 1953-1980. Tito kept the various ethnic/ religious group from fighting each other. After Tito’s death in 1980, various groups began fighting for power and land, resulting in war and genocide (ethnic cleansing) The break up of a state into many smaller states based on ethnic divisions is known as balkanization. Today, Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herz, Kosovo, Montenegro, and Macedonia are all independent nation-states.