Presentation on theme: "Yugoslavia: The Break Up Gunnar & Megan. What lies at the root of this conflict? ❖ The five republics of Yugoslavia --Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia,"— Presentation transcript:
What lies at the root of this conflict? ❖ The five republics of Yugoslavia --Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia-- were unified following WWI and remained so under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito. ❖ These republics contained their own respective nationalities, the Croats, Macedonians, Montenegrins, Serbs, and Slovenes ❖ Within Yugoslavia, there were four languages spoken (Croatian, Macedonian, Serbian, and Slovene) and three religions practiced (the Roman Catholic Croats and Slovenes, the Orthodox Christian Serbs, and the Muslim Bosnians and Montenegrins) ❖ Needless to say, there were many separate ethnic groups that were kept together under Tito’s strong leadership. ❖ After his death, Yugoslavia dissolved, and the different nationalities sought to unify “their” lands, thus inciting a grab for land and igniting war
What form does this conflict take? ❖ Ethnic Cleansing in Bosnia and Kosovo ❖ Violence ❖ Religious turmoil ➢ Between the Orthodox Christians, Roman Catholics, Muslims ❖ Discrimination ❖ Violence
How long has there been tension or conflict? ❖ Yugoslavia has experienced significant levels of tension and conflict since its formation through the Treaty of Versailles following World War I. The first government experienced violent inter-party conflict and the government was eventually suspended and King Alexander I took power. He behaved as a dictator and ruled harshly, generating internal and external disfavor. He was eventually assassinated and power transferred to his surviving relatives, both of whom eventually fell victim to internal conflicts and were exiled. ➢ Yugoslavia was occupied by the Axis powers during WWII, a period which witnessed massive genocide, expulsion and religious extremes. Over 1 million Yugoslav lives were lost during WWII. ❖ The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was created after WWII, and a period of relative peace and stability followed, although numerous ethnic, economic and nationalistic conflicts continued. ➢ Despite the presence of a strong central socialist government and dictator, internal violence and wars erupted in the 1980s and 1990s, driven primarily by ethnic and economic crises. In the end, Yugoslavia ceased to exist as a nation and was succeeded by the present collection of independent states. ❖ In summary, many of the causes of the tension that pervade Yugoslav history can be traced to the fact that Yugoslavia was originally created by combining Slovenes, Serbs and Croats, each of whom brought traditional religions and ethnic histories and nationalistic rivalries. Yugoslavia was home to significant numbers of ethnically aligned followers of Islam, Roman Catholicism, and Eastern Orthodox faiths. These religious and ethnic tensions persisted through the decades and were the source of many rivalries that led to violence.
How many people have been affected? ❖ The following data is taken considering that the war began on March 31, 1991 and ended on June 21, 1999 ❖ At the low end of the spectrum, the numbers of losses is at around 116,000 casualties ❖ At the high end of the spectrum, the number of losses is at around 500,000 casualties
Examples of how this conflict presents itself at a global scale ❖ Global: ➢ The various conflicts throughout Yugoslav history resulted in significant emigration to foreign countries in Europe, North America and South America. ➢ The Yugoslav wars throughout the 1990s resulted in the United Nations initiating peacekeeping operations, involving 39,000 troops from over 40 countries. ❖ Regional: ➢ The history of Yugoslavia is filled with internal conflicts that are focused on particular regions. The best modern examples are those during the Balkan wars. For example, when Slovenia declared its independence in 1991, the prime minister of Yugoslavia ordered the military to take control of the region; this effort resulted in significant violence, but Slovenia resisted the forces that were trying to stop its independence efforts. ➢ The war in Bosnia began as a regional conflict between Bosnian Serbs and Bosnian government forces (primarily Croats). Subsequently the Croats turned on their former allies, the Bosniaks ❖ Local: ➢ The war in Bosnia also had local features and ramifications, often triggered by religious and ethnic conflicts. Local Muslims and Croats were backed by the central government in Zagreb, while the Serbs in the same location had the support of the Yugoslav Peoples Army and Serbia.