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The BREAK-UP of YUGOSLAVIA. Yugoslavia From its creation in 1918 until the country broke apart in the early 1990s, Yugoslavia was a multinational state.

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Presentation on theme: "The BREAK-UP of YUGOSLAVIA. Yugoslavia From its creation in 1918 until the country broke apart in the early 1990s, Yugoslavia was a multinational state."— Presentation transcript:

1 The BREAK-UP of YUGOSLAVIA

2 Yugoslavia From its creation in 1918 until the country broke apart in the early 1990s, Yugoslavia was a multinational state composed of many ethnic (cultural) and religious groups. ethnic groups were dissatisfied with their status in the new state, opposed the domination of one ethnic group, the Serbs, and called for greater national and political rights. The country's economy was unstable Two of these groups were the fascists, who believed in a strong central government headed by a dictator, or sole ruler, and the communists, who believed that goods and services should be owned and distributed among the people.

3 Yugoslavia 1945 communists were able to deal with national aspirations by creating a federation of six equal republics - Croatia, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia, Bosnia- Herzegovina, and Macedonia. In Serbia the two provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina were given autonomous status. Restored economic stability post WWII

4 Yugoslavia national and ethnic tensions increased due to unequal development and a growing burden of debt. communist leader, Tito, held Yugoslavia together from post WWII until his death in Marshall Tito- 1 st Yugoslavian President

5 Slovene/Catholic 91% Croat/Catholic 3% Serb/E Ortho 2% Croat/Catholic 78% Serb/E Ortho 12% Serb/ E Ortho 63% Montenegrin/ E Ortho 6% Albanian/Muslim 14% Hungarian/Catholic 4% Muslims (43.7%) Croats/Catholic (17.3%) Serbs/E Ortho (31.4 %) 66% Macedonian/E Ortho 23% Albanian/Muslim 2% Serb/E Ortho 4% Turk/Muslim Patterns of Ethnic Settlement Facilitated the Conflict and Break-up Bosnia: 40% of urban couples ethnically mixed

6 Autonomous Provinces in Yugoslavia Vojvodina Hungarian and Catholic majority Kosovo Albanian and Muslim majority (90%)

7 Yugoslavia Yugoslav Federation was falling apart. Nationalism had once again replaced communism as the dominant force in the Balkans. Slovenia and Croatia break away from Yugoslavia Renewed conflict with Serbia due to break away The war in Croatia led to hundreds of thousands of refugees croatia

8 Bosnia Bosnia had declared independence from Yugoslavia. Geographic middle of Yugoslavia It was an example of a truly multi-ethnic society with no majority Muslims (43.7%) Croats (17.3%) Serbs (31.4 %) The population consisted of large ethnic groups Linked to Serbia and Croatia Serbia and Croatia wanted these people and their lands to join Serbia and Croatia respectively, rather than be in a multi-ethnic Bosnia Bosnia

9 The Serbs who lived there were determined to remain within Yugoslavia and to help build a greater Serbia. Muslims were driven from their homes in carefully planned operations that become known as 'ethnic cleansing'. Serbia and Croatia wanted Bosnian people and their lands to join Serbia and Croatia respectively, rather than be in a multi- ethnic Bosnia. Bosnia

10 Slovenia (West) Slovene/Catholic 91% Croat/Catholic 3% Serb/E Ortho 2% Croatia (West) Croat/Catholic 78% Serb/E Ortho 12% Macedonia (East) 66% Macedonian/E Ortho 23% Albanian/Muslim 2% Serb/E Ortho 4% Turk/Muslim Serbia and Montenegro (incorporated Vojvodina and Kosovo) (East) Serb/ E Ortho 63% Montenegrin/ E Ortho 6% Albanian/Muslim 14% Hungarian/Catholic 4% Bosnia and Hercegovina (Central) Muslims (43.7%) Croats/Catholic (17.3%) Serbs/E Ortho (31.4 %) Ethnic and Religious Make-up

11 Key to the conflict Slobodan Milosevic Former president of Serbia and Yugoslavia – purged moderates – played upon old fears/animosities – engaged in specific policies designed to –perpetuate the fear and –SEGREGATE the populations and REDRAW national boundaries to their own advantage – specifically calculated the Wests inability/reluctance to get involved

12 QUOTES "Vested interests are behind this [the world's outrage], and of course a very well-organized and well-paid media war. Today in Europe it is normal for the Vatican or Austria and Germany to support Croats. It's not normal if Serbs are supporting Serbs." MILOSEVIC

13 Dayton Peace Accord Single Bosnia state (country) divided into two self-governing entities w/in Bosnia: Croat-Muslim Federation and Bosnian Serb Republic (2 republics) aims were to bring about the reintegration of Bosnia and to protect the human rights Did not reverse effects of ethnic cleansing NATO implementation force (IFOR) to enforce provisions and ensure elections War crime tribunal

14 ETHNIC MIX BEFORE THE WAR

15 After Dayton AccordsBefore the War

16 REFUGEES


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