Presentation on theme: "Unit 2: Conflict and Cooperation (Background information)"— Presentation transcript:
Unit 2: Conflict and Cooperation (Background information)
Conflict and cooperation among people and nations is caused by government ideas (politics) and cultural reasons (ethnicity, background, language, religion). We are going to examine several of these issues from world wars (politics) to country divisions (cultural reasons).
Nationalism (pride in your country) spread throughout Europe in the 1900’s The GoodThe Bad Can be constructive: bring people together Can be destructive: cause conflict between people -prevent nations from cooperating -cause nations to want to harm others
Europeans feared their own nations and were terrified of others taking their territory Alliances (agreements) were formed between nations for protection Alliance 1Alliance 2 Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey Great Britain, France, Russia
The alliances went to war in 1914; most nations is Europe participated United States joined the war in 1917 aiding Great Britain, France, and Russia This alliance defeated Germany, Austria- Hungary, and Turkey World War I saw 9 million soldiers and over 13 million non-soldiers die
After WWI, nationalism was still alive Alliances formed again; their goal: increase their wealth through military dominance Axis PowersAllies Germany Japan Italy Great Britain Soviet Union China France United States
The Axis Powers captured most of Europe, parts of China, and the South Pacific 50 nations around the world soon got involved The Allies won in 1945 WWII was the most destructive war ever fought (millions died, the most money on any war was spent)
After WWII, the U.S. and the Soviet Union became SUPERPOWERS of the world Europe divided itself into two regions, Eastern and Western Western Europe allied themselves with the U.S. grew together as a region (cooperated) Eastern Europe: Followed the Soviet Union Economies failed and people’s freedoms were taken away
During both world wars, how did nations from around the world demonstrate COOPERATION? During both world wars, how did nations from around the world demonstrate CONFLICT? Using your map comparison of Europe before and after World War I, how did borders change? Were these changes cultural or political? How did World War II define the territories of Western and Eastern Europe?
We are going to view two Brain Pop videos on World War I and World War II. Complete your Brain Pop guided questions and note taking guides as we watch the videos. Be prepared to share your responses and notes.
Historically, parts of Europe were culturally diverse (many cultures in one region) Both peace and violence occurred because of this diversity. We are going to study the history of Czechoslovakia, which is now two countries, the Czech Republic and Slovakia and the violent destruction of Yugoslavia.
Czechoslovakia had 2 main ethnic groups: Czechs and Slovaks CzechsSlovaks -lived in western regions of Bohemia and Moravia -lived in eastern region of Slovakia (Hungarians, Ukrainians, Germans, and Poles lived there, too)
Communists took over the country after WWII For over 20 years, protests against communism broke out as protesters wanted democracy to be their form of government Protests led to the end of communism.
After communism fell in Czechoslovakia, the two ethnic groups (Czechs and Slovaks) disagreed on how to run the democratic country The conflict ended peacefully as each ethnic group formed new countries: Czechs formed the Czech Republic Slovaks formed Slovakia
How did both the Czechs and Slovaks cooperate after communism took over their homeland? How did the end of communism bring conflict between the two ethnic groups? Was their resolution simply conflict, or a combination of both conflict and cooperation? Explain your choice.
Cultural differences in Yugoslavia led to a violent breakup of the country. How does this compare to that of Czechoslovakia?
The country was formed in 1918 and consisted of many cultural groups. Since its existence, these groups disagreed about how the Yugoslavian government should be run. The country was divided into smaller units called republics; each republic was dominated by one cultural/ethnic group. Serbia was the largest republic, led by the Serbs; this republic had the most power and ran the national government. Other ethnic groups did not agree with the Serbs and their control and resented their power; this led to ethnic conflicts among the people
Josip Broz Tito became the head of the government and made Yugoslavia communist. Tito had good international relationships with both communist and non-communist countries. Under Tito, Yugoslavia was stable and conflict between its people were almost nonexistent because of Yugoslavia’s success as a country. Nationalism took over Yugoslavia: people believed they were Yugoslavians!!!
Tito died in 1980 and the government fell apart as leaders from every ethnic group struggled for power. Ethnic groups reformed as separate identities; nationalism died in Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia became unstable in the 1980’s Republics wanted to govern themselves, which ultimately led to civil wars breaking out throughout the country. Wars led to the development and independence of newly formed countries: Slovenia Croatia Bosnia & Herzegovnia Serbia & Montenegro Macedonia