Presentation on theme: "North Africa: Hitler’s First Defeat. North Africa America had decided that Germany would be the number one enemy –The bombing of Pearl Harbor changed."— Presentation transcript:
North Africa America had decided that Germany would be the number one enemy –The bombing of Pearl Harbor changed this plan Once Americans took Guadalcanal, they could focus on Hitler again. In Europe, the Soviets were still fighting German invaders
North Africa British and Americans could not agree of where to attack Hitler –British wanted to attack Germany’s outer ring –America wanted to go through France and attack into the heart of Germany Stalin wanted the Allies to open a Second Front in Europe
North Africa British invade Dieppe on French Coast –Was a disaster Roosevelt and Churchill agree the Allies aren’t ready to invade Europe Decide to invade in North Africa
North Africa Mussolini’s men were the first to invade British-held Egypt –They were stopped and the Germans and Rommel come in –Continues to go back and forth Rommel attacks again and Tobruk falls. The Afrika Korps drive toward Cairo and Suez Canal.
North Africa U.S. send Sherman tanks and guns General Montgomery takes over the British Africa campaign –Said there would be no retreat from their position at El Alamein Control of North Africa would give the Allies a base from which to invade Italy
North Africa Dwight D. Eisenhower named Commanding General, European Theater of Operations General Montgomery builds up his forces at El Alamein –Would be the final thrust of the Desert War
El Alamein Massive assault began at night Von Stumme dies of a heart attack and Rommel called back in. Rommel personally leads one counterattack which fails –Orders full retreat El Alamein was an Allied victory
American Invasion of North Africa 3 invasions of North Africa –Casablanca in Morocco –Oran- inside the Mediterranean Sea –Algiers in Algeria Called Operation Torch Eisenhower sends Major General Clark to meet with two French Generals known to be sympathetic to the Allies
American Invasion of North Africa Eisenhower looks for someone the French will follow in this invasion –General Henri Giraud Eisenhower sends 100 Allied invasion ships through the Strait of Gibraltar –Invasion begins the following morning
Oran Had fierce resistance French will not follow General Giraud so put Admiral Darlan in charge of North Africa.
Casablanca Fiercest of all fighting Invasion force commanded by George S. Patton 3 days later, French surrender but object to surrender terms. –Eventually the problem of French allegiance was solved.
Tunisia Tunisia was the land separating Algeria and Libya In Libya, Rommel was retreating with Montgomery in pursuit –Rommel would reach Tunisia Eisenhower wants to beat Rommel to Tunis
Tunisia British and American forces close in Rommel realizes the battle is lost, but Hitler will not let him evacuate
Interactive Map Interactive Map of North Africa CampaignInteractive Map of North Africa Campaign