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Independence in Africa

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Presentation on theme: "Independence in Africa"— Presentation transcript:

1 Independence in Africa

2 One of the most important motives for the European “Scramble for Africa” in the late 1800s was that Africa provided a source of a. raw materials used in industry b. religious inspiration c. free labor for the Americas d. technologically innovative practices

3 What problems may arise once Africans have gained independence from European colonial powers?

4 African Unity Fight for Independence after WWII Pan-Africanism
United Nations charter declares that all colonial people should have the right to self-determination Pan-Africanism Emphasized the unity of Africans and people of African descent all over the world Regardless of national boundaries Nations should work together to solve their problems

5 Ghana British colony Struggle led by Kwame Nkrumah
Used strikes and boycotts Independence gained in 1957 Gold Coast renamed Ghana Organization of African Unity (OAU), 1963 Created by Nkrumah to promote Pan-Africanism

6 Kenya British colony Struggle led by Jomo Kenyatta
Was jailed when violence broke out Independence gained in 1963

7 South Africa Ruled by European white minority after winning independence from Britain in 1910 1912, African National Congress (ANC) forms Used violence, boycotts and nonviolent civil disobedience to oppose injustice Apartheid – 1948, official separation of races Black Africans and other non-whites had to live in certain zones, public facilities and transportation were segregated, interracial marriages were forbade

8 Apartheid

9 Anti-Apartheid Movement
1960, police killed 69 and wounded 180 at a peaceful demonstration in Sharpeville Government outlaws ANC

10 Nelson Mandela 1964, an important ANC leader, was sentenced to life in prison Became symbol of the struggle for freedom Wrote “The Long Walk to Freedom”

11 Desmond Tutu Black bishop and civil rights leader
Convinced foreign nations and businesses to limit trade and investment in segregated South Africa Strong effect

12 F. W. de Klerk President of South Africa in 1989
Legalizes ANC, repealed segregation laws, released Mandela in 1990 All can participate in 1994 elections; Mandela elected president

13 S.A. Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC)
Resolve conflict leftover from apartheid and wrongdoings by the government

14 Post-Apartheid Mandela, de Klerk, and Tutu all won Nobel Peace Prizes for their efforts to end apartheid Trade and investment has resumed Struggles still exist

15 What is the main idea of the cartoon?

16 Obstacles to Progress in Africa
Economic Challenges Focused on building industry and agriculture Many remain dependent on imports and foreign financial aid Many rely on export of a single cash crop or natural resource Nigeria - oil Few food crops and drought --> widespread hunger

17 Health Challenges Poverty HIV/AIDS
Slums, lack of running water and electricity HIV/AIDS Epidemic

18 Political Challenges African Union
Single party rule or military rule in most nations Violent overthrows Ethnic and regional conflicts African Union 2002, 53 African countries Goals: solving economic, social, political and environmental problems in Africa

19 Ethnic Tensions and Nationalism
Rwanda Hutu vs. Tutsi Hutu ran new gov’t; resentment grows Genocide, 1994 Hutu kill approximately 500,000 Tutsis Darfur, Sudan 2003, Arab gov’t officials attacked African tribal groups Villages burned, tens of thousands killed, millions of refugees (HR VIOLATIONS AGAIN!!!!!!!)

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