Presentation on theme: "READING SHORT STORIES: DAY 1 Notes on Elements of Literature and Stylistic Techniques Used in Short Stories Monday, September 22, 2014 Honors and Regular."— Presentation transcript:
READING SHORT STORIES: DAY 1 Notes on Elements of Literature and Stylistic Techniques Used in Short Stories Monday, September 22, 2014 Honors and Regular MYP
Quick Write: Free Write In your composition notebook, do a free write. You may write about whatever is on your mind. Please write coherent thoughts in English for the full 4 minutes. You could write about: Your weekend Plans for Homecoming Anything else on your mind Remember to include: Title and date (9/22/14) Revision in colored pen
Objective, Agenda, & Homework Objective: Students will identify the narrative elements and stylistic techniques used by authors in short stories. Agenda: Quick Write with Revision Grade Check Notes Video on JFK Homework: Honors: none Regular: Study Greek roots 1-8 for Wednesday’s quiz.
Notes: Parallel Plot Definition: The writer weaves two or more dramatic plots that are usually linked by a common character and a similar theme. In “American History,” there is one plot about the assassination of President John F. Kennedy and a second plot about the main character, Elena. At the end, Elena’s response to the two simultaneous events in her life come together and affect the outcome of her story.
Notes: Point of View 1 st Person Point of View The narrator uses "I" to refer to himself/herself. The narrator is a character in the story, often, but not necessarily, the protagonist. This narrative point of view allows for a very personal touch in the story telling.
Notes: Point of View 2 nd Person Point of View The writer uses “you” and speaks directly to the reader. It captures the readers attention and brings the reader into the story. Not commonly used by authors of short stories.
Notes: Point of View 3 rd Person Objective Point of View The narrator is not a character in the story. The story is told purely on what is said and done. It is basically a camera view of the story. The reader does not learn the thoughts and feelings of any character in the story. Not commonly used by authors of short stories.
Notes: Point of View 3 rd Person Limited Point of View Also known as an external subjective narrator; the 3 rd person point of view The narrator is not a character in the story but looks at things only through the eyes of a single character. This type of narrative permits the narrator to quickly build a close bond between the protagonist and the reader, without being confined by the protagonist’s educational or language restrictions.
Notes: Point of View 3 rd Person Omniscient Point of View Multiple points of view; the narrator is "all-knowing“ The narrator is not a character in the story but knows everything about the story. The omniscient narrator can show the thoughts and experiences of any character in the story. It permits the writer the broadest scope.
Notes: Methods of Characterization Typically, there are 4 methods of characterization. Author describes Character reveals self through what he/she says and does Report reactions of other characters to the individual Character reveals self through his/her thoughts and feelings Method 1, author describes, does not really occur when the story is told in 1 st person point of view because the character is describing him/herself. We will highlight methods 2-4 in “American History” this week.
Notes: Sentence Structure & Variety There are several types of sentences that can be used for different purposes and to create variety for the reader. Below are some we will talk about: Simple Sentences Compound Sentences Complex Sentences Compound-Complex Sentences Items in a Series Short sentences best convey suspense, tension, and swift action. Longer sentences work best when explanations and descriptions are needed. Prose has rhythm just as poetry does. Its rhythm can be produced by the juxtaposition of sounds, the use of repetition with a slight variation of patterns, and the varied length of sentences.
Notes: Sentence Structure & Variety Simple Sentence: consists of only one independent clause with a subject and a verb Example: We rode our bikes. Explanation: we = subject rode = verb
Notes: Sentence Structure & Variety Compound Sentence: is made up of two or more independent clauses joined by a comma and coordinating conjunction, a colon, or a semicolon (possibly with a conjunctive adverb) Coordinating Conjunctions (FANBOYS): for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so Conjunctive Adverbs: therefore, however, thus, hence, otherwise Example: We rode our bikes, and we had a picnic. Explanation: independent clause + comma + “and” + independent clause
Notes: Sentence Structure & Variety Complex Sentence: contains one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses A dependent clause cannot stand on its own as a sentence; it is a fragment. Example: We rode our bikes because the weather was beautiful. Explanation: independent clause + dependent clause with subordinate conjunction (“because”)
Notes: Sentence Structure & Variety Compound-Complex Sentence: contains two independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses Example: Because the weather was beautiful, we rode our bikes, and we had a picnic. Explanation: dependent clause + independent clause + independent clause
Notes: Sentence Structure & Variety Items in a Series: Sentences with 3 or more items in a series: contains 3 or more items in a list that are separated by commas and a coordinating conjunction Example: We rode our bikes down trails, over hills, and through streams. Explanation: independent clause with phrase + comma + phrase + comma + “and” + phrase The comma before the “and” is known as the Oxford comma and should be used with items in a series.
Background Knowledge: JFK Tomorrow, we will be reading a story called “American History” by Judith Ortiz Cofer. One of the plots has to do with the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. Introduction to JFK: Who was he? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tjA4mtnCkM4 (10 minutes) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tjA4mtnCkM4 Assassination of JFK; Impact on a nation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YI3SWnGmpz8 (6 minutes) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YI3SWnGmpz8