Presentation on theme: "Literary Terms for Study"— Presentation transcript:
1Literary Terms for Study Short StoriesLiterary Terms for Study
2FictionStories that are made upNot trueUsually written in prose
3Prose Standard form of spoken or written English used for writing Everything except poetryHas no rhythm or rhyme
4Short Story Fiction work usually less than 40 pages Deals with a single conflict and theme
5Exposition Beginning of story Introduces setting, characters and conflict
6Conflict Struggle between two forces in a story Types of conflict: Man vs. ManMan vs. NatureMan vs. SupernaturalMan vs. SocietyMan vs. Self (internal conflict)
7Rising Action Events in the story that lead to the climax Must be the obvious causes of the climaxThe climax cannot occur without the developments happening first
8Climax Point of highest action or emotional intensity Turning point of the conflictThe nature of the conflict will change as a result
9Falling Action Events after the climax Ties up loose ends of the story Is a result of the climaxLeads to final end of story
10Resolution The final outcome of the story Tells how things end for the character(s)
11Plot Sequence of events in a story The pattern in which a conflict is resolved
12Protagonist Main character of the story Is followed by the action of the storyIs not always the “good guy”
13Antagonist The person or force causing problems for the main character May be human, animal, storm, etc.Stories with internal conflict will have no antagonist
14Round CharacterCharacters that have varied and often conflicting qualitiesEx. A student who fights a lot at school but is gentle and kind with small children.
15Dynamic CharacterCharacters who begin one way then change as a result of the story’s eventsThese characters grow and evolve because of what happens to them in the story
16Static CharacterCharacters who do not change but always stay the same throughout the story
17CharacterizationMethods used by an author to reveal the looks, beliefs, motivations or personality of a characterTwo types of characterization:Direct characterization – author comes out and tells you exactly what the character is likeIndirect characterization – you must decide about the character based on character’s words and actions
18Character traits Qualities of a character’s personality or appearance Blonde hair, blue eyes (appearance)Honest, fun-loving (personality)
19ForeshadowingThe subtle revealing of clues that hint to events that will occur later in the story
20Setting The time and place of the story Words or phrases that describe the time and place of the story reveal its settingCan affect actions and attitudes of characters
21ToneThe attitude a narrator feels toward the subject of which he is speakingThe “voice” the narrator uses to talk about the characterExample: When your mom’s angry with you, you can tell by the tone of her voice and the words that she uses to talk to you or about you.
22Verbal IronyWhen a character says something that can have multiple meaningsAn intentional, but true, statement that will mislead other characters.
23Situational IronyWhen you get the opposite of what you expect in a situationSurprise ending of a story
24Dramatic IronyWhen the audience is aware of information that the characters are unaware of
25Theme The central message or lesson of a story Should be something the reader can apply to their own lives
26Symbol/SymbolismUsing an object or repetitive theme to represent a larger ideaExample:Wedding ringsCrowsSkull and crossbones
27Point of view The perspective from which a story is told Who’s voice is telling the story?How do they feel about the story they’re telling?What is their relationship to the events of the story?
28First Person Point of View Story told from the view of someone involved in the story’s eventsWill use “I”, “Me”, “My”, “We” and “Us” to refer to their own involvement
29Third Person Point of View When a story is told from the view of someone who did not take an active role in the storyTwo types of third person POV:Limited – can only give perspective with thoughts and feelings of one characterOmniscient – an all-knowing, God-like perspective; can tell thoughts and feelings of all characters at any time past or present
30AllusionA reference to something famous or familiar from history, culture, literature, music, etc.Can be a direct mention or an indirect reference to
31Mood Vibe or feeling you get from the story Can be determined by descriptions of the settings and characters or the author’s choice of words
33SimileA comparison of two unlike things using the words “like” or “as”The winner of the race ran like the wind.The accident happened as quick as lightening.
34MetaphorA comparison of two seemingly unlike things without the use of comparative words such as “like,” “as,” or “seem.”Will refer to the object as if it actually IS the other in some way.That test was a nightmare.My brother is a thorn in my side.
35Repetition Saying something over and over. Could be a word, phrase, or visual imageHighlights or emphasizes important thingsAids in memory
36ImageryThe use of descriptive phrases that appeal to different senses (sight, sound, taste, touch, smell)