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Short Stories Literary Terms for Study. Fiction  Stories that are made up  Not true  Usually written in prose.

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Presentation on theme: "Short Stories Literary Terms for Study. Fiction  Stories that are made up  Not true  Usually written in prose."— Presentation transcript:

1 Short Stories Literary Terms for Study

2 Fiction  Stories that are made up  Not true  Usually written in prose

3 Prose  Standard form of spoken or written English used for writing  Everything except poetry  Has no rhythm or rhyme

4 Short Story  Fiction work usually less than 40 pages  Deals with a single conflict and theme

5 Exposition  Beginning of story  Introduces setting, characters and conflict

6 Conflict  Struggle between two forces in a story  Types of conflict: –Man vs. Man –Man vs. Nature –Man vs. Supernatural –Man vs. Society –Man vs. Self (internal conflict)

7 Rising Action  Events in the story that lead to the climax  Must be the obvious causes of the climax  The climax cannot occur without the developments happening first

8 Climax  Point of highest action or emotional intensity  Turning point of the conflict  The nature of the conflict will change as a result

9 Falling Action  Events after the climax  Ties up loose ends of the story  Is a result of the climax  Leads to final end of story

10 Resolution  The final outcome of the story  Tells how things end for the character(s)

11 Plot  Sequence of events in a story  The pattern in which a conflict is resolved

12 Protagonist  Main character of the story  Is followed by the action of the story  Is not always the “good guy”

13 Antagonist  The person or force causing problems for the main character  May be human, animal, storm, etc.  Stories with internal conflict will have no antagonist

14 Round Character  Characters that have varied and often conflicting qualities –Ex. A student who fights a lot at school but is gentle and kind with small children.

15 Dynamic Character  Characters who begin one way then change as a result of the story’s events  These characters grow and evolve because of what happens to them in the story

16 Static Character  Characters who do not change but always stay the same throughout the story

17 Characterization  Methods used by an author to reveal the looks, beliefs, motivations or personality of a character  Two types of characterization: –Direct characterization – author comes out and tells you exactly what the character is like –Indirect characterization – you must decide about the character based on character’s words and actions

18 Character traits  Qualities of a character’s personality or appearance –Blonde hair, blue eyes (appearance) –Honest, fun-loving (personality)

19 Foreshadowing  The subtle revealing of clues that hint to events that will occur later in the story

20 Setting  The time and place of the story  Words or phrases that describe the time and place of the story reveal its setting  Can affect actions and attitudes of characters

21 Tone  The attitude a narrator feels toward the subject of which he is speaking  The “voice” the narrator uses to talk about the character  Example: When your mom’s angry with you, you can tell by the tone of her voice and the words that she uses to talk to you or about you.

22 Verbal Irony  When a character says something that can have multiple meanings  An intentional, but true, statement that will mislead other characters.

23 Situational Irony  When you get the opposite of what you expect in a situation  Surprise ending of a story

24 Dramatic Irony  When the audience is aware of information that the characters are unaware of

25 Theme  The central message or lesson of a story  Should be something the reader can apply to their own lives

26 Symbol/Symbolism  Using an object or repetitive theme to represent a larger idea  Example: –Wedding rings –Crows –Skull and crossbones

27 Point of view  The perspective from which a story is told  Who’s voice is telling the story?  How do they feel about the story they’re telling?  What is their relationship to the events of the story?

28 First Person Point of View  Story told from the view of someone involved in the story’s events  Will use “I”, “Me”, “My”, “We” and “Us” to refer to their own involvement

29 Third Person Point of View  When a story is told from the view of someone who did not take an active role in the story  Two types of third person POV: –Limited – can only give perspective with thoughts and feelings of one character –Omniscient – an all-knowing, God-like perspective; can tell thoughts and feelings of all characters at any time past or present

30 Allusion  A reference to something famous or familiar from history, culture, literature, music, etc.  Can be a direct mention or an indirect reference to

31 Mood  Vibe or feeling you get from the story  Can be determined by descriptions of the settings and characters or the author’s choice of words

32 Genre  Different types of literature

33 Simile  A comparison of two unlike things using the words “like” or “as” –The winner of the race ran like the wind. –The accident happened as quick as lightening.

34 Metaphor  A comparison of two seemingly unlike things without the use of comparative words such as “like,” “as,” or “seem.”  Will refer to the object as if it actually IS the other in some way. –That test was a nightmare. –My brother is a thorn in my side.

35 Repetition  Saying something over and over.  Could be a word, phrase, or visual image  Highlights or emphasizes important things  Aids in memory

36 Imagery  The use of descriptive phrases that appeal to different senses (sight, sound, taste, touch, smell)


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