Fiction Stories that are made up Not true Usually written in prose
Prose Standard form of spoken or written English used for writing Everything except poetry Has no rhythm or rhyme
Short Story Fiction work usually less than 40 pages Deals with a single conflict and theme
Exposition Beginning of story Introduces setting, characters and conflict
Conflict Struggle between two forces in a story Types of conflict: –Man vs. Man –Man vs. Nature –Man vs. Supernatural –Man vs. Society –Man vs. Self (internal conflict)
Rising Action Events in the story that lead to the climax Must be the obvious causes of the climax The climax cannot occur without the developments happening first
Climax Point of highest action or emotional intensity Turning point of the conflict The nature of the conflict will change as a result
Falling Action Events after the climax Ties up loose ends of the story Is a result of the climax Leads to final end of story
Resolution The final outcome of the story Tells how things end for the character(s)
Plot Sequence of events in a story The pattern in which a conflict is resolved
Protagonist Main character of the story Is followed by the action of the story Is not always the “good guy”
Antagonist The person or force causing problems for the main character May be human, animal, storm, etc. Stories with internal conflict will have no antagonist
Round Character Characters that have varied and often conflicting qualities –Ex. A student who fights a lot at school but is gentle and kind with small children.
Dynamic Character Characters who begin one way then change as a result of the story’s events These characters grow and evolve because of what happens to them in the story
Static Character Characters who do not change but always stay the same throughout the story
Characterization Methods used by an author to reveal the looks, beliefs, motivations or personality of a character Two types of characterization: –Direct characterization – author comes out and tells you exactly what the character is like –Indirect characterization – you must decide about the character based on character’s words and actions
Character traits Qualities of a character’s personality or appearance –Blonde hair, blue eyes (appearance) –Honest, fun-loving (personality)
Foreshadowing The subtle revealing of clues that hint to events that will occur later in the story
Setting The time and place of the story Words or phrases that describe the time and place of the story reveal its setting Can affect actions and attitudes of characters
Tone The attitude a narrator feels toward the subject of which he is speaking The “voice” the narrator uses to talk about the character Example: When your mom’s angry with you, you can tell by the tone of her voice and the words that she uses to talk to you or about you.
Verbal Irony When a character says something that can have multiple meanings An intentional, but true, statement that will mislead other characters.
Situational Irony When you get the opposite of what you expect in a situation Surprise ending of a story
Dramatic Irony When the audience is aware of information that the characters are unaware of
Theme The central message or lesson of a story Should be something the reader can apply to their own lives
Symbol/Symbolism Using an object or repetitive theme to represent a larger idea Example: –Wedding rings –Crows –Skull and crossbones
Point of view The perspective from which a story is told Who’s voice is telling the story? How do they feel about the story they’re telling? What is their relationship to the events of the story?
First Person Point of View Story told from the view of someone involved in the story’s events Will use “I”, “Me”, “My”, “We” and “Us” to refer to their own involvement
Third Person Point of View When a story is told from the view of someone who did not take an active role in the story Two types of third person POV: –Limited – can only give perspective with thoughts and feelings of one character –Omniscient – an all-knowing, God-like perspective; can tell thoughts and feelings of all characters at any time past or present
Allusion A reference to something famous or familiar from history, culture, literature, music, etc. Can be a direct mention or an indirect reference to
Mood Vibe or feeling you get from the story Can be determined by descriptions of the settings and characters or the author’s choice of words
Simile A comparison of two unlike things using the words “like” or “as” –The winner of the race ran like the wind. –The accident happened as quick as lightening.
Metaphor A comparison of two seemingly unlike things without the use of comparative words such as “like,” “as,” or “seem.” Will refer to the object as if it actually IS the other in some way. –That test was a nightmare. –My brother is a thorn in my side.
Repetition Saying something over and over. Could be a word, phrase, or visual image Highlights or emphasizes important things Aids in memory
Imagery The use of descriptive phrases that appeal to different senses (sight, sound, taste, touch, smell)