# Geography Revision Notes Mapping Mind maps, practice exercises, key points to assist revision Recommended links to useful websites.

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Geography Revision Notes Mapping Mind maps, practice exercises, key points to assist revision Recommended links to useful websites

Mapping All maps should have the following: F – Frame A – Arrow indicating direction (North) K – Key T – Title S - Scale

Types of maps Physical maps- show physical features such as mountains, rivers, oceans, lakes Political maps –show countries and cities

Map of Europe

Lines of Latitude & Longitude Lines of latitude are parallel lines that run around the Earth. The centre line is the Equator which divides the Earth into the Northern and Southern Hemispheres Lines of longitude run from north to south. The main line of longitude is called the Prime Meridian or the Greenwich Meridian and runs through Greenwich in London

Mapping Symbols Church station Caravan site camping site picnic site bus station Windmill Golf Course View Point Non-coniferous wood Public Telephone Parking National Trust Light House Nature Reserve Windpump/generator Motorway

Four figure grid references Let’s find grid square 21 31 To read a 4 figure grid reference go along to the line number of the first 2 numbers and then go up to the line with the second 2 numbers.

In order to give something a six-figure grid reference, imagine the larger square split into one hundred smaller squares. 26 25 7778 Then add numbers 1 to 10 between the main lines.

To work out the six-figure grid reference, first go along the bottom line and calculate the first three figures. 26 25 7778 1 3 2 5 4 7 6 9 8 123456789 773 253 So, the six- figure grid reference for the church is..... 773253 Next, work out the last three figures by going up the side of the square.

Try to remember this phrase: ‘Go along the corridor, then up the stairs’. Can’t remember which lines to use first? c. R. Langley

Rural & Urban Settlements Rural – green fields, open spaces, lots of vegetations, farmlands. Small villages with shops, church, post office, houses, small roads Urban – built up, lots of tall skyscrapers and buildings close together, factories, houses, busy roads, shopping malls and centres, lots of traffic and congestion, pollution,

London Docklands – a changing settlement

Just by turning off the tap while you brush your teeth in the morning and before bedtime, you can save up to 8 gallons of water! Taking a shower uses much less water than filling up a bathtub. To save even more water, keep your shower under five minutes long Washing your bike or car with a bucket and sponge instead of a hose saves a lot of water. The best time to water your garden is in the early morning or late evening when it's cool outside. Did you know that less than 1% of all the water on Earth can be used by people? The rest is salt water (the kind you find in the ocean) or is permanently frozen and we can't drink it, wash with it, or use it to water plants. As our population grows, more and more people are using up this limited resource. Therefore, it is important that we use our water wisely and not waste it. WATER

Mountain Ranges of the world

The surface of our world is made up of huge plates of rock. These tectonic plates slowly move against each other… When two plates push against each other, earth and rocks are gradually raised up to make a range (or group) of mountains. Making mountains Plates pushing towards one another Land is pushed up between the plates and forms mountains

The lava rushes out (or erupts). Then it cools down to make solid rock. Over time, the rock builds up in huge piles to make a special kind of mountain called a volcano. A volcano that can still erupt is active. A volcano that has stopped erupting is extinct. Making mountains

The higher you go, the colder the air gets. And different plants and animals do well at different temperatures… Mountain weather & visitors Snowline – no plants can survive at this height. Only birds such as eagles at this level Warmest temperatures at base of mountain – lots of green plants, trees, animals & birds Temperature decreases as we go higher, fewer plants mostly heathers & moss, fewer animals

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