Presentation on theme: "The Function of Ingredients in Bakery Products Year 8 Food Technology – Mrs McQuillan."— Presentation transcript:
The Function of Ingredients in Bakery Products Year 8 Food Technology – Mrs McQuillan
Bakery Products The basic ingredients of baked products are usually flour, liquid, fat, sugar, salt, eggs, rising agents and flavourings. Each one of these ingredients has its own role and function in baked products. Different ingredients affect the texture …. but also how a product tastes, looks, smells and feels
Flour Contributes protein and starch (carbohydrate) to a baked product. Both substances contribute to a baked products structure and strength. Starch gelatinization is the process by which starch granules absorb water and swell in size. The heat of baking causes starch in flour to absorb liquid and swell. As more liquid is absorbed by the starch, the batter goes from a fluid to a solid state, "setting-" the product. When flour is mixed with liquid in a recipe, an elastic, stretchy substance called ‘gluten’ is formed. Gluten traps & holds air bubbles contributed by the rising agent. During baking, it stretches like a net to contain expanding air bubbles during rising. At a certain point in baking, the stretched flour proteins set, providing structure for bakery products. Flour also contributes protein and sugar for the Maillard reaction or ‘browning’.
What makes flours different? Type of flourGluten contentAdd raising agent Plain flour Low- Wholemeal flour Low- Self-raising flour Lowyes Bread flour High- Cornflour low
Fats Shortening, margarine, butter (solid fats) or vegetable oils contribute to the tenderization of baked products by inhibiting gluten development and starch gelatinization. Fats coats the flour proteins to water-proof them and reduce their contact with the liquid ingredients in a recipe. This prevents gluten from forming and contributes to tender baking. Fat can help leaven a product to incorporate air. When solid fats are creamed with crystalline sugar, tiny air cells are incorporated into the batter, so the baked goods will have a fine, aerated texture. Butter fat contributes flavour to a recipe. Margarine does not.
Liquid The liquid ingredient may be milk, fruit juice, water and any others. Generally, liquid serves as a solvent for salt, sugar and other solutes. It also assists in the dispersion of fat through the bulk of the recipe. Assists in the development of gluten during mixing and baking Assists in rising (leavening) during baking Is involved in the gelatinization of starch, thus contributing to structure. Contributes to the Maillard ‘browning’ reaction. The amount of liquid determines whether a dough (less liquid) or batter (more liquid) is produced.
Sugar Sweetens bakery products. Contributes texture, body, mouthfeel and bulk to many processed foods. Is important to the creaming process that incorporates air into batters. The irregular shape of the sugar crystals helps create air pockets that contribute to a uniform crumb structure. Gives a brown crust due to the Maillard reaction. Sugar is an effective natural preservative. It does this by binding water.
Eggs Contribute to the structure of a baked product. They may do this through their coagulation or setting properties. May also contribute to flavour. Fat content in yolk serves as both a tenderizer and an emulsifier. Add colour & nutrients (fat soluble vitamins, B vitamins) to a recipe.
Salt Increases elasticity of gluten and therefore increases volume. Sharpens the flavour of some foods. Is an effective natural preservative, by making water unavailable for the growth of micro-organisms.
Leavening or Rising agents Work by producing gas by chemical or biological methods Chemically – gives of CO 2 during baking eg. bicarbonate of soda (baking soda) an baking powder Biologically – CO 2 from fermentation of yeast