Presentation on theme: "The “Corrupt Bargain” of 1824 Objective: To explain the detrimental effects of the “corrupt bargain” of 1824. How did the spoils system play into the election."— Presentation transcript:
The “Corrupt Bargain” of 1824 Objective: To explain the detrimental effects of the “corrupt bargain” of 1824. How did the spoils system play into the election of 1824? Voter turnout rose dramatically. In 1824, ¼ of the eligible voters voted, but in 1840, it reached 78%. Four candidates: John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, William Crawford, and Andrew Jackson. Jackson won the popular vote. Henry Clay had the least amount of electoral votes but he was the Speaker of the House. Henry Clay and Adams are very similar politically; fervent nationalists. House of Reps decided on Adams and Clay became Secretary of State. Jackson supporters thought that Adams bribed Clay of the position. No positive evidence was found.
A Yankee Misfit in the White House Objective: To reveal why John Quincy Adams was one of the worst presidents in U.S. history. John Q. Adams entered office under charge of corruption. He wasn’t popular among the people with 1/3 of votes for presidency. Adams kept office holders regardless of their loyalty to him, which angered those who supported him because they were not rewards with high political positions. Spoils system. He held nationalistic views while the majority was for states’ rights. He wanted to use funds for roads/canals/schools/etc. but the public believed it was a waste of government money. The South especially was angered by this because they felt it would open a door for the government to impose on slavery as well. Adams’ land policies tried to slow down westward expansion and allow the Indians their fair share of land. Westerners wanted to continue expanding and to get rid of the Indians as well. The Georgians threatened to resort to arms and successfully resisted the government, which was another huge blow for Adams’ political career.
Going “Whole Hog” for Jackson in 1828 Objective: To fully understand the tactics used by Jackson and Adams’ parties to win the elections. Andrew Jackson headed DR party. Spent 4 years spreading his name through campaigns = mudslinging. Jackson was presented as a hero by his followers. His supporters made rally cries. He threw many parties. Jackson’s strongest support came from the West and South. He was a war hero. His supporters criticized Jackson’s opponents. Jackson would bring “reform” by sweeping out the “dishonest” Adams gang.
“Old Hickory” as President Objective: Learn what made Jackson so unique. Afflicted with a violent temper that drew him into many fights. The second president without a college education. He was also a judge and member of Congress. The first president from the “west.” As a youth, he was often entertained by cockfighting. He was actually an orphan from Carolina.
The Spoils System Objective: Understand the political impact of the spoil’s system and how people responded to it. Rewarded political supporters with public office. System had a firm hold in New York and Pennsylvania. Jackson defended the spoils system with democratic justification. Illiterates, incompetents, and crooks were given positions of high power. System was an important element of emerging two-party order. Promise of patronage provided a compelling reason for Americans to pick a party and stick with it through thick and thin.
The Tricky “Tariff of Abominations” Objective: Determine why the Tariff of Abominations earned its nickname, and why it was so disliked. Tariffs protected American industry against competition from European manufactured goods. Tariffs also drove up prices for all Americans and invited retaliatory tariffs on American agricultural. 1820s= wool and textile industries= booming; forward thinking Yankees started to believe that future prosperity would flow from factory, not sea. 1824 = Congress led general tariff significantly
“Nullies” in South Carolina Objective: Determine why John C. Calhoun and the South saw the Tariff of 1828 as such an abomination and they would raise threats of nullification over it. When John Q. Adams won the election of 1824, Jacksonians proposed a tariff in order to push Adams out of office. It turned out Jackson didn’t need the tariff to be elected in 1828, but I was passed anyway. The tariff backlashed and southerners became angry, nullification crisis deepened. South Carolina took action and campaigned heavily against the tariff, people became known as “nullies.” Unionists tried to impede the nullies’ effort. The Compromise Tariff of 1833 finally passed to reduce the tariff. Neither Jackson or the nullies won a clear victory, but the Force Bill (Bloody Bill) was passed, which allowed the president to use army/navy to collect tariff duties.
The Trail of Tears Objective: Describe Jackson’s policies of westward expansion and his harsh removal of the southeastern Indian nations on the Trail of Tears. U.S. Federal government agreed (1790) to only acquire land through treaties. In 1828, Jackson enforced removal of Indians in the South. The U.S. government also made attempts to “blend” Indians into society. Indian Removal Act (1830) forced all Indians west of the Mississippi River. Trail of Tears was a forced march/removal of Indians to western lands. Fox and Sauk tribes resisted Jackson’s removal and lost the Black Hawk War (1832).
The Bank War Objective: Explain Jackson’s economic and political motives for waging the bitter Bank War. Jackson felt the bank would be a monopoly. Nicholas Biddle had an immense amount of power as President of the Bank of the U.S. The bank war was caused by Henry Clay wanting to renew the charter. Jackson vetoed the bill despite the Supreme Court ruling it constitutional in the McCulloch v. Maryland case. The bank issue was now thrown into the noisy arena of the presidential contest of 1832.
“Old Hickory” Wallops Clay in 1832 Objective: Determine the underlying causes of the fight between Clay and Jackson. Those who favored Jackson cheered for him, those who favored Clay cheered for Clay while his critics…? For the first time, a third party, the Anti-Masonic Party joined the field. They opposed the Masonic Party political force in NY and influential in New England states. Jackson was a Mason so Anti-Masons were anti-Jackson. For the first time 3 national nominating conventions were called to name candidates. Clay and National Republicans had many advantages of donated money, life insurance, had control over NY newspaper. Jackson easily defeated Clay with electoral count of 219 to 49.
Burying Biddle’s Bank Objective: Determine if Biddle’s Bank was a real threat to the economic welfare of the less affluent citizens whom Jackson represented, or more important as a symbol of eastern wealth and elitism. Jackson withdrew federal funds from bank to drain its wealth. Biddle began to call for unnecessary loans in reaction to the causing mini panic. Jackson’s attempt to kill the Bank of the U.S. worked. The death of the Bank of the U.S. destroyed our economy causing a cycle of booms and busts. Because the wildcat banks were not reliable when the Bank of the U.S. died it hit the west hard. When Jackson was elected in 1836 the Bank of the U.S. officially died.
Big Woes for the “Little Magician” Objective: Determine why Martin Van Buren was unable to outmaneuver the Whig political opposition as Jackson had. Spoils system advocator. First president to be born once the U.S. was a nation. Legislative and administrative experience. Van Buren was not skilled enough to avoid Jackson’s economic depression. Inherited Jackson’s problems: Slavery Neutrality The antislavery agitators in the North were in full force.
Depression Doldrums and the Independent Treasury Objective: Determine how Jacksonian economics crippled Martin Van Buren after the Panic of 1837. Panic of 1837 caused by misuse of money, “get rich-quicksim” There were many problems in the economy, including failures of wheat crops. All this mania happened at the end of Jackson’s term but Van Buren got the wrath. This was proved when the failure of 2 British banks, along with other setbacks, heralded the beginning of the U.S. panic. Banks were collapsing by the hundreds. Whigs proposed for expansion of bank credit, higher tariffs, and subsidies for internal improvements. Van Buren didn’t like this and instead tried to apply the Divorce Bill. Divorced government from banking and established an independent treasury. His plan wasn’t popular and Whigs condemned it and Democrats brought it back in 1846.
The Lonestar Rebellion Objective: Determine if the Texas Revolution against Mexico was more about the expansion of slavery into the West than about the rights of Anglo-American settlers in Texas. Texans declared their independence from Mexico. Led by Sam Houston, the Texans were outnumbered by 400 men. Confronted with Bowie knives, the Mexicans withdrew. By their terms, he withdrew all his troops and recognized the Rio Grande River as a boundary between the two countries. The Texans could not have won without American assistance. Texans wanted to be a part of the U.S. The northern states then accused the southern states of wanting more slaves. Texas was filled with slaves and Americans from the South and Southwest. If the Americans were to admit Texas, they would enlarge American slavery.
Log Cabins and Hard Cider of 1840 Objective: Determine if the growing hoopla of American politics reflected in the “log cabin and hard cider” campaign of 1840 was a violation of the republican virtue upheld by the Founders. Martin Van Buren was nominated by the Democrats while William Henry Harrison was nominated by the Whigs for president. William Henry Harrison was best known for the Battle of Tippecanoe; he was issue-less and enemy-less. While Democrats insulted Harrison-called him impoverished farmer- Whigs accepted log cabin and hard cider symbols for his campaign. Harrison was actually from an FFV (First Families of Virginia) and had a 16 room mansion on a 3,000 acre farm. Harrison won the popular vote by a close margin, but won the electoral vote 234 to 60. Voters were actually facing a choice between two economic visions on how to cope with the economic depression. Whigs, like Harrison, sought to expand and stimulate the economy.
Politics for the People Objective: Determine if the republican virtue upheld by the Founders was violated or an inevitable and even healthy reflection of the public’s engagement with politics once it was opened up to the great mass of people. Democracy was more favored than Federalism. “Bigwigs” sneered at Democrats. The common man was moving to the center of the political stage. Instead of doing what is good for the president, they are doing what is good for the people. Candidates who were “too clean” and “too well-dress” were not favored. The people voted for who was most like them.
The Two-Party System Objective: Describe the differences between the current two parties. Who were their leaders, platforms, etc. Two parties- Whigs & Democrats Democrats: Liberty of the individual Clung to state’s rights. More humble folk. Whigs : Trumpeted the natural harmony of society and value of community. Deliberately tried to mobilize as many voters as possible. Prosperous financially.