Presentation on theme: "ANDREW JACKSON Victory in a Different Election. Caucus, the “Smoke-Filled Room” where candidates are selected The Candidate Selection Process."— Presentation transcript:
ANDREW JACKSON Victory in a Different Election
Caucus, the “Smoke-Filled Room” where candidates are selected The Candidate Selection Process
Choose candidate and outline platform
Increased White Male Suffrage- No more land requirement!
Half-way home. What should I know? Jackson runs as a Democrat J.Q. Adams runs as a National-Republican Election is different than the one held in 1824, as there are expanded voting rights for white males. The candidate selection process is also different. Caucus- group of party representatives who pledge to vote for a candidate at a convention Nominating Convention- meeting of party members held to select a candidate who will represent the party in the general election and to establish a platform.
Jackson wins: PARTY TIME
Jackson’s VP: John C. Calhoun of South Carolina New Traditions
Spoils System- Jackson puts supporters into government positions after he is elected Only replaces 9% of federal positions
Jackson’s Kitchen Cabinet
Group of advisors that included: - Martin Van Buren (Secretary of State) - Francis Blair (Editor of the Washington Globe)
Intro Part 2 Review Jackson won the election of His supporters threw a wild party at the White House to celebrate. Jackson is viewed as a “common man”. Jackson’s Vice President is John C. Calhoun Spoils System- after winning election, Jackson appointed some of his supporters to federal positions. Many of these men were unqualified for the job. Kitchen Cabinet- A group of unofficial advisors to President Jackson that included his Secretary of State Martin Van Buren, and Washington Globe editor Francis Blair
Nullification Crisis And the Tariff of Abominations
After War of 1812, British begin dumping goods in the U.S. The Conflict
Congress passes the Tariff of 1828 in May of that year.
Time to draw!
The South opposes the tariff, with South Carolina leading the opposition.
Half way home! What should I know? The U.S. Congress enacted the Tariff of 1828 in May of The tariff was designed to protect manufactured goods from unhealthy foreign competition. Dumping Goods- To sell a goods in another country at a much lower price than in the home country The South opposes the Tariff. It causes the cost of goods to go up for the South because they must now purchase the more expensive Northern goods (or pay even more for cheap foreign goods that are heavily taxed), while lowering the amount the South makes by exporting cotton. South Carolina leads the opposition to the tariff.
Tariff of 1832 Quits VP to support home state of S.C. Writes South Carolina Exposition and Protest. The ‘Solution(s)’
Compromise: Reduce tariff over time
Crisis Averted! (this time)
Jackson must choose a new VP for He chooses his Secretary of State, Martin Van Buren.
Nullification Part Two Review Calhoun resigns to support South Carolina in opposition to the Tariff of 1832 Jackson chooses Martin Van Buren as his replacement South Carolina Exposition and Protest, written by Calhoun, outlines the idea of “state’s rights” States Rights- the idea that the states’ power is superior to that of the federal government Nullification- Declaring that a FEDERAL bill or law will not be enforced in a state. Jackson acquires a force bill in order to prepare the army to enforce the Tariff of 1832 Compromise plans for tariff to be gradually reduced over time, crisis is averted
The National Bank A Fight to the Death
Second National Bank established under Madison in 1816 (Chartered for 20 years)
Nicholas Biddle, president of the National Bank, tries to renew charter in 1832 (4 years before it expires)
Congress passed the bill that renewed the Charter. However, it did not become law because…
It had to get past Andrew Jackson, who HATED the national bank.
Jackson vetoes the Bank Charter Bill, because: -Jackson believes bank is unconstitutional (strict Constitution) -Jackson feels the National Bank could be heavily influenced by the rich
Chief Justice John Marshall, McCulloch v. Maryland, 1819 Bank is Constitutional- Elastic Clause States cannot tax/interfere with National Bank
Congress doesn’t have votes to override veto.
Jackson then weakens the National Bank by moving all of the money to “Pet Banks”
The Trail of Tears The Struggle to Stay
The 5 “Civilized Tribes” Look at the picture: Why might the white settlers see Chief John Ross (and his tribe, the Cherokee) as “civilized”?
The Cherokees: Adopted US currency Converted to Christianity Began farming Purchased land Sequoyah invents written language publish newspaper, the Cherokee Phoenix, in both Cherokee and English
Codified Removal: The Indian Removal Act
Indian Removal Act of 1830 Passes in House by 5 votes Jackson supports removal
Cherokees adopt “white” ways -newspaper, Cherokee Phoenix -white dress -U.S. currency -purchase land -farming Indian Removal Act of 1830 requires Cherokees to move from tribal lands to “Indian Territory” in Oklahoma
Many in the United States oppose Indian Removal including author Ralph Waldo Emerson (pictured)
Worcester v. Georgia Marshall rules: Cherokees are dependent nation, can make treaties with U.S. federal government Federal overrides state authority, therefore Georgia must obey federal treaties “Justice Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it”- President Andrew Jackson.
U.S. Army marches Cherokee 1000 miles to new lands Not enough supplies are ordered for the trek Over 4000 are lost on the march westward
Many Seminoles evaded capture and small communities remain in Florida today Many Cherokee were successful in evading removal or purchasing land to remain “legally” in the East Cherokees formed a corporation through which they purchased land for the Eastern Tribe
U.S. public was divided over the legality of Removal Worcester v. Georgia- Cherokees won, Georgia must listen to treaties that protect Cherokee land Jackson enforced removal anyway Many Cherokee were lost on the trek West Fewer would have died if proper supplies had been ordered Despite the Removal Act, many Seminoles and Cherokee remained in the traditional tribal lands after 1838