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Andrew Jackson: Populist Democrat Libertyville HS.

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1 Andrew Jackson: Populist Democrat Libertyville HS

2 Election of 1828 Rematch between Jackson, Adams Jackson crushed Adams Victory for the common man! Small farmers, city workers vs. wealthy factory owners, large land owners Results Jackson:178 ECV / 642,553 Adams: 83 ECV / 500,897

3 Andrew Jackson (1767 – 1845) Andrew Jackson (1767 – 1845) Born in Carolinas (3 boys) - Last president to fight in Revolution Revolution story Adult life spent in TN Attorney, then judge Slave owner – cotton plantation Duels & other scrapes War of 1812 Led militia in FL against Indians Battle of New Orleans “Old Hickory” (tough guy)

4 Jackson’s Political Career Founded on being a war hero (1812, fighting in Seminole War) Elected to US Senate for TN Election of 1824 First “frontier” president elected, 1828 Wife died on eve of election – devastated Jackson

5 “Jacksonian Democrats” New political values Respect for the common man Expansion of voting rights to all white males Executive as “servant of the people” “Manifest Destiny” to justify expansion Spoils system

6 Spoils System “To the victor goes the spoils” Winner of election gets to appoint his supporters into roles of government In favor avoid aristocracy loyal bureaucracy encourage political participation by commoners Rotate political appointees good for country Against: corruption, incompetence Still in existence?

7 Jackson’s Presidency: The Tariff Issue 1816 Tariff: 20-25% 1824 Tariff: 37% Opposed by South & Calhoun South relied on open markets for cotton Also bought more foreign mfgr’d goods 1828 Tariff: 45% (signed by Adams)

8 “Tariff of Abominations” Purpose of tariff: protect northern industry Opposition in South Unconstitutional (favored N over S) Hurt cotton trade (b/c of retaliatory tariffs) Southern expectations: Jackson would reduce / eliminate tariff

9 South Carolina Exposition and Protest 1828 protest against tariff, written by VP Calhoun Unconstitutional (nothing in Constitution about protecting industry) Improper tariff (protection, not revenue) States had right to nullify Federal legislation under compact theory Secession also an option, per VA & KY Resolutions Stated that unless tariff repealed, SC would secede South Carolina

10 Tariff Issue: Compromise Missed NE reps, senators wanted to restrict sale of W lands (losing workers) W: no restrictions! Southern offer We’ll vote for no restrictions if W votes to end Tariff W: No Deal!!!

11 Webster –Hayne Debate, 1830 Robert Hayne: SC senator Made Calhoun’s argument in support of nullification Daniel Webster: MA senator Argued against nullification idea Constitution created by the People, not states USSC determines constitutionality, not states No state may nullify or secede; otherwise union “is a rope of sand” Webster replying to Hayne

12 Jackson’s Position Jackson sympathetic to Southern view BUT Jackson believed in... strong union effective central government

13 Jefferson Dinner, 1830 Political dinner to celebrate founding of party by TJ After dinner toasts Robert Hayne: “"The Union of the States, and the Sovereignty of the States.” Jackson’s toast: "Our federal Union: It must be preserved!“ Calhoun’s toast: "The Union: Next to our Liberty, the most dear!" Hayne Calhoun

14 Jackson’s Position on Issue Jackson, Calhoun had falling out over the 1831“Petticoat Affair” Sec. of War John Eaton married Peggy, a tavern waitress Other cabinet wives refused to socially recognize her Infuriated Jackson Resulted in Jackson shifting favor from Calhoun to SoS Van Buren

15 Nullification Crisis 1832: Calhoun resigned as VP, became SC Senator Jackson signed Tariff of 1832, which reduced some tariffs to 35% November 1832: SC convention declared Nullification Ordinance Tariffs of 1828 & 1832 unconstitutional Unenforceable in SC after Feb 1, 1833

16 Jackson’s Response to Nullification Ordinance Jackson vowed to send US troops to SC to enforce laws Asked Congress for Force Bill to allow for invasion of SC

17 Compromise! Henry Clay – “The Great Compromiser” SC agreed to Compromise Tariff (tariff reduced to 1816 level over 10 years) Force Bill and Compromise Tariff both passed 3/1/1833 SC convention met to repealed 1832 Nullification Ordinance Crisis averted... For now

18 Re-Chartering the 2 nd BUS 2 nd BUS had become very powerful, perhaps corrupt Jackson opposed BUS Too much concentration of wealth Fraud, corruption in lending practices Served to make rich richer Favored NE over W, S states Believed gold, silver was only true money (not paper) Called BUS a bloodsucker, the “monster bank”

19 Bank Issue and 1832 Election Bank President Biddle & Henry Clay ask for re- charter in 1832 (4 yrs early) Clay steered re- charter bill through congress, but Jackson vetoed bill Pro Bank cartoon, just after veto

20 Election of 1832 Jackson, Martin Van Buren – D Henry Clay, John Sergeant - R Two other parties Bank was an issue in election Jackson’s populist positions gave him easy road to re- election Results Jackson: 219 ECV / 707,000 Clay: 49 ECV / 329,000

21 Second BUS Controversy During election, Biddle had worked against Jackson’s re-election 2 Treasury secs resigned 1833: Jackson ordered Treasury Sec. Roger Taney to withdraw all US funds from BUS Deposited in state banks (“Pet banks”) BUS depended on this money for its survival

22 BUS Decline and “Death” BUS declined, became state bank of PA Went bankrupt in 1836 This, plus “Specie Circular” of 1836 led to Panic of 1837 (dominated Van Buren’s Presidency) Cartoon dramatizing effects Of Panic of 1837 / Species Circular

23 Jackson’s Legacy Democracy increased Greater suffrage Greater western migration Greater industrialization Secession avoided “Spoil’s System” Indian Removal Panic of 1837

24 Election of 1836 Martin Van Buren (D) Whig “Favorite sons” William Harrison (OH) Hugh White (TN) Daniel Webster (MA) Willie Mangum (NC) Whig Strategy: throw election into House Whigs, total = 124 ECV / 739,000 Results Van Buren:170 ECV / 762,678 Harrison: 73 ECV / 549,000 White: 26 ECV / 146,000 Webster: 14 ECV / 41,000 Mangum: 11 ECV / ---

25 Martin Van Buren First President born an American citizen Grew up speaking Dutch New Yorker – active in State Senate (Erie Canal, machine politics) Nicknamed “The Little Magician” for his skillful political maneuvering Very courteous to friends, foes Elected to US Senate Appointed Jackson’s SOS

26 Van Buren’s Presidency Dominated by Panic of 1837 Specie circular (all W land must be paid for w/ gold, silver) Run on state banks, for specie State banks collapsed = panic 1839-1843: full economic depression Whigs: “Martin Van Ruin” Cartoon blaming Ds for Panic

27 Election of 1840 Van Buren / Johnson (D) Harrison / Tyler (W) Slogan: “Tippecanoe and Tyler too!” Narrow popular vote win, but landslide ECV Results Harrison:234 ECV / 1,275,016 Van Buren: 60 ECV / 1,129,102

28 Harrison & Tyler Harrison died April 1841 At 68, oldest president ever elected (until Reagan) Wanted to show he was still youthful Gave long inaugural address (2 hours) in bitter cold weather Died of pneumonia three weeks later President served shortest term in history (32 days) Tyler succeeded: called “His Accidency” by critics

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