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Chapter 18 Whole and Part Practice Concept: Base decisions about practicing skills as wholes or in parts on the complexity and organization characteristics.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 18 Whole and Part Practice Concept: Base decisions about practicing skills as wholes or in parts on the complexity and organization characteristics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 18 Whole and Part Practice Concept: Base decisions about practicing skills as wholes or in parts on the complexity and organization characteristics of the skills

2 Definitions Whole practice –A practice strategy that involves practicing a skill in its entirety (i.e., as a whole) Part practice –A practice strategy that involves practicing parts of a skill before practicing the whole skill

3 Skill Complexity and Organization The decision to practice a skill as a whole or in parts can be based on the complexity and organization characteristics of the skill (Hypothesis by Naylor & Briggs, 1963) –Complexity: number of parts or components in a skill, and the attention demands on the task Note: “Complexity” is distinct from “difficulty” –Organization: spatial and temporal relationships among the parts of the skill High level of organization: parts are spatially and temporally interdependent Low level of organization: parts are relatively independent

4 Decisions to Use Whole or Part Practice Analyze the skill to determine which part of each continuum for complexity and organization best represents the skill –If the skill is low in complexity and high in organization, practice of the whole skill is best –If the skill is high in complexity and low in organization, practice by using the part method See A Closer Look - Example for learning to juggle 3 balls

5 Example of making decision regarding use of whole or part practice: juggling Skill Analysis Complexity characteristics 1. Hold the 3 balls in 2 hands 2. Toss ball 1 from hand 1 3. Catch ball 1 in hand 2 while tossing ball 2 with hand 2 4. Catch ball 2 in hand 1 while tossing ball 3 with hand Catch ball 3 in hand 1 while tossing ball 1 with hand 2 6. Repeat steps 2 and Between-component timing:critical for performance Conclusion. Three-ball juggling involves several component parts that are highly interdependent. Thererfore, juggling 3 balls is relatively high in complexity and in organization. Practicing the whole skill is appropriate method. Supporting Evidence: Knapp and Dixon. Students who practiced juggling by whole method required 65 trials, part method required 77 trials.

6 Practicing Parts of a Skill Three part-task strategies (From Wrightman & Lintern, 1985) 1. Fractionalization: –For skills requiring asymmetric coordination of the arms or legs –Practice individual limbs Begin practicing with limb requiring more difficult or more complex part 2. Segmentation –Also known as the progressive-part strategy –Begin practice with first part of skill then progressively adds each part until skill is practiced as a whole

7 Practicing Parts of a Skill Three part-task strategies (From Wrightman & Lintern, 1985) 1. Fractionalization: –For skills requiring asymmetric coordination of the arms or legs –Practice individual limbs Begin practicing with limb requiring more difficult or more complex part 2. Segmentation –Also known as the progressive-part strategy –Begin practice with first part of skill then progressively adds each part until skill is practiced as a whole

8 Practicing Parts of a Skill, cont’d 3.Simplification –Reduce skill difficulty by practicing an easier (i.e., simpler) variation of the skill before practicing the skill itself Examples of simplification methods –Reduce object difficulty –Reduce attention demands –Reduce movement speed –Add auditory cues –Progressive sequences of increasing skill difficulty or complexity –Simulators and virtual reality environments

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10 Practicing Parts of a Skill, cont’d 3.Simplification –Reduce skill difficulty by practicing an easier (i.e., simpler) variation of the skill before practicing the skill itself Examples of simplification methods –Reduce object difficulty –Reduce attention demands –Reduce movement speed –Add auditory cues –Progressive sequences of increasing skill difficulty or complexity –Simulators and virtual reality environments

11 Practicing Parts of a Skill, cont’d 3.Simplification –Reduce skill difficulty by practicing an easier (i.e., simpler) variation of the skill before practicing the skill itself Examples of simplification methods –Reduce object difficulty –Reduce attention demands –Reduce movement speed –Add auditory cues –Progressive sequences of increasing skill difficulty or complexity –Simulators and virtual reality environments

12 Practicing Parts of a Skill, cont’d 3.Simplification –Reduce skill difficulty by practicing an easier (i.e., simpler) variation of the skill before practicing the skill itself Examples of simplification methods –Reduce object difficulty –Reduce attention demands –Reduce movement speed –Add auditory cues –Progressive sequences of increasing skill difficulty or complexity –Simulators and virtual reality environments

13 Attention Approach to Involving Part Practice in Whole Practice When it is not advisable or practical to separate parts of a skill for practice A “part practice” strategy that provides both part and whole practice: –Practicing the whole skill but focus attention on specific parts that need work

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