Presentation on theme: "AS Level – Week 7 Theory Module 1 The Nature and Classification of Skill and Ability."— Presentation transcript:
AS Level – Week 7 Theory Module 1 The Nature and Classification of Skill and Ability
The terms “skill” and “ability” are frequently used to describe a sporting performance. What makes one performer more skilled than another? Characteristics of Skill All skilled performances have similar characteristics. Knapp: “Skill is a learned ability to bring about the predetermined results with maximum certainty, often with the minimum outlay of time or energy or both” Welford: “Skill is an organized, co-ordinated activity in relation to an object or situation which involves a whole chain of sensory, central and motor mechanism.” In short, a skill is learnt and performed consciously and deliberately by the performer
Task Sign your name at the top of a piece of paper. Now with your non writing hand sign your name 10 times one under another. What happens? A skilled action is: learned - it requires practice and develops through experience. Being skilled involves a permanent change in behaviour that will stand the test of time goal directed / has an end result – each skill has a predetermined objective at the beginning of the movement consistent – reflects the ability of the performer to repeat the skill despite differing environmental conditions efficient – the actions are performed with co-ordination and precision using the required amount of energy necessary
fluent – the actions appear to flow naturally rather than be forced, with good balance and timing recognizable / linked to a technical model – the skill is instantly recognizable and its execution can be compared to other performers, allowing an analysis of performance to occur aesthetic – the execution of the skill is pleasing to observe, appearing controlled and effective within the context of the situation. A skill can also be discussed in terms of its complexity and organization. The complexity of a skill depends on the number of subroutines involved, the perceptual and decision making demands, the time available to process the information and amount of feedback required. The organization of a skill depends on the relationship between subroutines of the skill. Subroutine = phase of a movement pattern that must be executed at the appropriate time in the sequence if the skill is to be successful.
Types of Skills There are three main types of skill-: Cognitive skills – skills that involve thought processes and intellectual ability. Examples include devising appropriate strategies and tactics to outwit an opponent. Perceptual skills – skills that involve the detection and interpretation of stimuli from the environment via the senses. This may differ between performers who may all observe the same situation but focus on different cues and consequently arrive at a different conclusion. Example, netball players have to quickly analyse the location of team mates, the opposition and their location on court before deciding on the most effective skill to execute. Motor skills – skills that involve physical movement and muscular control linked to a specific objective. Example, kicking a ball or badminton serves.
Psychomotor skills – also known as perceptual motor skills. These skills are a combination of the perceptual and motor skills outlined above and are the type most frequently used during sporting performance. They involve the interpretation of environmental stimuli and the execution of movement. Example, a rugby player who receives the ball will have to analyse the situation, decide the best option pass, run, kick and then execute the movement whilst constantly updating new stimuli and modifying their actions.