Discuss the ways in which transfer of learning can be used effectively when developing skills + tactics in a chosen sport SIMON WELLS
The purpose of physical and sporting education / transfer of learning standards is to improve the quality of physical education through the learning process in sport. The Role of Transfer Of Learning In Sport Some performers learn more through natural ability. People who have good natural ability are often skilled performers within a range of sports. Good players / performers can often be seen to transfer the skills they have learnt in one situation, into another.
What Ways Can The Transfer Of Learning Take Place ? There are three main ways for this process: Developed in one situation, and used in another. PRO-ACTIVE The influence is known as PRO-ACTIVE. Many examples occur in sports that are similar, especially various racket sports.
The Effects Of Transfer: Skills that are developed in a similar situation are usually beneficial to ones in another situation. Personally, I have found that developing a skill in one racket sport has a positive effect when playing another. However, it seems that larger, more gross movements are the only skills that prove to make a positive transfer.
The more specific the practice or training drills can be to the sport [competitive settings and demands], the more effective they will be in enhancing competitive performances. Maximising the similarity between the practice and competition will produce the best results in terms of competition play. This is also true for different sports. In general, motor skills are highly specific and transfer of learning between different motor skills is quite small. If transfer of learning from the practice session to the game or competitive situations is to be maximised, the demands of the practice session should relate closely to the demands of the sport itself.
Fine movements require very specific practice and are not usually learnt or transferred into another sport. Examples include: Grip positioning on the racket. Ball contact on the racket. Pressure on the racket and grip. Negative transfer refers to a situation where generally, the skills may be similar between the sport, but in reality the techniques are very different.
What Ways Can The Transfer Of Learning Take Place ? autonomous Training to a point where players become autonomous is essential at the highest level of performance. The more specific the practice or training drills can be to the sport [competitive settings and demands], the more effective they will be in enhancing competitive performances. If transfer of learning from the practice session to the game or competitive situations is to be maximised, the demands of the practice session should relate closely to the demands of the sport itself.
When teaching new skills or altering established and skills already learnt, it is common practice to break skills into component parts and "build" the movement patterns in stages. This "part" approach is most effective when the skill to be learned is complex and has clearly defined natural breaks or components (e.g., a gymnastics routine). Such an approach to learning [or modification] however, may be of little to no value when the skill is essentially continuous with no natural breaks (such as in running, swimming). Mental practice, when interspersed with physical practice, under some circumstances assists in both immediate and long-term sports performance improvements. Athletes in sprinting events often exhibit various mental practices before a race, some of which I too have adopted in order to prepare myself for a race.
This is a good example of how a mental transfer of learning can focus the mind on the task.
Massed practices that lead to high levels of fatigue and performance deterioration, in the long-run, seem to be just as effective for developing skills as well-spaced practice sessions which allow recovery and the maintenance of good practice standards. However, too much excessively massed practice can be detrimental to learning and other factors associated with performance. It would be advised to use the spaced practice and recovery opportunities rather than excessive overloading. Sprint starts in training are a good example of a skill that is best learnt in spaced practises. Merged within other training skills and sprinting related events, I find starts are best learned in spells along with the other parts of the sprint to break each component down within the run and work separately with every aspect. Once each component has been learnt, putting the whole sequence together is made much easier for the student and once the transfer is broken down.
Skills that are taken directly from one situation, and applied to another. A practice whereby a skill is transferred form one side of the body to the other. The ability of using both feet is a great advantage in a sporting situation. The use of Bilateral transfer is common in all methods of learning, although it usually occurs in smaller less significant movements. Many players tend to have a dominant side of their body which they prefer to use during sport (e.g. left handed tennis players).
It seems that the best players within their sport have adapted this transfer to a point where they have almost become Automonous in their movements. Players like Zinadine Zedane are a good example of people that have developed the Bilateral learning to become one of the most efficient players in the world. His ability to perform a skill with maximum certainty and minimum outlay of effort is evident in his play. This type of transfer does not always prove to be positive. The influence of one sporting skill sometimes lowers the ability to perform another. unequal. A transfer where the process hinders the performance of a player is known as unequal.
Within my own sport, this is also true to say. Athletics is a very specific sport to learn in techniques and styles. I have learnt that it is of no benefit to my athletics style to participate in nearly all the other sports. I helps in some aspects like stamina, but the varying techniques in sprinting between the sports contradict the outer. With different goals, the styles of both contradict the other. The development of adaptability and response flexibility should not go outside of the activity itself. It would be wrong to assume that improvements in cycling will somehow transfer to kayaking speed. Even within a sport, it would be incorrect to assume that movement patterns which would never arise in a competitive performance, such as those developed by "drills," contribute to performance improvements.