Taste Seminar Andy Taylor11 Aroma: Does in-nose measurement correlate with perception? Black line Time-intensity sensory perception Red and pink Breath by breath aroma release
Taste Seminar Andy Taylor12 Sampling on the tongue TONGUE SWABBED WITH WEIGHED COTTON BUD COTTON BUD IMMERSED IN 3 ML OF METHANOL/WATER MASS SPEC 10 l SAMPLE INJECTED INTO MASS SPEC
Taste Seminar Andy Taylor13 Taste Release from an orange
Taste Seminar Andy Taylor14 Applying in vivo measurements to foods Chewing gum
Taste Seminar Andy Taylor15 Dragees: Aroma, Sensory and Sugar
Taste Seminar Andy Taylor16 Stick Gum: Aroma, Sensory and Sugar
Taste Seminar Andy Taylor17 New concept discovered Interaction between modalities Cross modal effects How strong are they?
Taste Seminar Andy Taylor18 Dynataste ® Dynataste ® Multi Channel Flavour Delivery System Connection to operating software 1/8” OD, 1.55mm ID teflon tubing 1/16” OD, 0.5mm ID teflon tubing pump manifold Interchangeable chamber In line check valve ‘solution’
Taste Seminar Andy Taylor19 Results - removing sugar
Taste Seminar Andy Taylor20 Removing IAA Group 2 n = 9 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0306090120150 Time (s) Banana Flavour Intensity 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 mean IAA Group 3 n= 4 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0306090120150 Time (s) Banana Flavour Intensity 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 IAA mean
Taste Seminar Andy Taylor21 Are there other interactions between flavour modalities?
Taste Seminar Andy Taylor22 Sugar-acid-aroma interactions Aroma Perception Sucrose (M) Acid(%) 0.000.070.150.220.30 0.00 0.07 0.15 0.22 0.30 10 40 70 100 130 170 150 Effect of sucrose and citric acid on the perception of Strawberry flavour = perceived intensity Contours are equal The aroma concentration remains constant
Taste Seminar Andy Taylor23 Viscosity-taste-aroma interactions (data for 4 different hydrocolloids)
Taste Seminar Andy Taylor24 Salt taste in hydrocolloid solutions 0 10 20 30 3.5g/L NaCl & 2g/L HPMC 3.5g/L NaCl & 10g/L HPMC Number of judges More salty P < 0.01 Low Viscosity High Viscosity More viscous HPMC significantly reduced the saltiness of the same NaCl stimulus. What about a congruent savoury flavour (garlic) ?
Taste Seminar Andy Taylor25 Viscosity – salt - garlic interactions All samples contained 2.5ppm diallyl disulfide More intensely garlic P < 0.01 No significant difference 0 5 10 15 2g/L NaCl & 2g/L HPMC 2g/L NaCl & 10g/L HPMC Number of judges 0 2 4 6 8 10 2g/L NaCl & 2g/L HPMC 3g/L NaCl & 10g/L HPMC Number of judges Low Viscosity High Viscosity
Taste Seminar Andy Taylor26 Using the information in real life foods
Taste Seminar Andy Taylor27 Challenges for the UK food industry Food Standards Agency
Taste Seminar Andy Taylor28 Consequences of reducing fat, sugar and salt in foods
Taste Seminar Andy Taylor29 Comparing aroma release in yoghurts Each yogurt contains the same amount of flavour
Taste Seminar Andy Taylor30 Shape of aroma release in yoghurts with different fat contents
Taste Seminar Andy Taylor31 Sensory testing of regular and low fat flavoured (strawberry) milks Same aroma contentAdjusted aroma content
Taste Seminar Andy Taylor32 Volatile Release Profiles from Yogurt Decanone high hydrophobicity Ethyl Octanoate high hydrophobicity Ethyl Butyrate low hydrophobicity Butanone low hydrophobicity High fat Low fat Low fat + - CD
Taste Seminar Andy Taylor33 Thickened foods High viscosity foods decrease flavour perception so more sugar & salt added Is this true for all thickeners??
Taste Seminar Andy Taylor34 Salt reduction FSA and Government says we can do it, but what about flavour and consumer acceptance Defra funded project at Nottingham to study if we make people “learn to like” healthy foods and on effective use of thickeners
Taste Seminar Andy Taylor36 How can we help? University of Nottingham research MRes 1 year PhD 3-4 years Postdocs 1-5 years Flavometrix – spin out company Consultancy and advice Analysis Research New product development Hourly, daily rates www.flavometrix.co.uk
Taste Seminar Andy Taylor37 Acknowledgements University of Nottingham Joanne Hort, Rob Linforth, David Cook, Tracey Hollowood, Mike Hodgson, Jamie Langridge, Johann Pfeiffer, Jim Davidson, Avinash Kant, Zahra Shojaei. UK Government BBSRC DEFRA Companies Unilever Firmenich SA Geneva