OUR AIM TONIGHT: To “illustrate” for you six typical aromas of Syrah blend wines
TASTE AND SMELL OF OUR 5 SENSES, TASTE AND SMELL ARE THE LEAST UNDERSTOOD. LAST YEAR DRS. RICHARD AXEL & LINDA BUCK WON THE NOBEL PRIZE IN MEDICINE FOR DISCOVERING HOW PEOPLE CAN RECOGNIZE ~10,000 ODORS.
TASTE AND SMELL TASTE – STARTS ON THE TONGUE & SOFT PALATE SMELL (AROMA) – STARTS AT THE BACK OF THE NOSE
SENSE OF TASTE SWEET SOUR (ACIDIC) BITTER SALTY UMAMI (SAVOURY) NOT ASTRINGENCY (= mouthfeel)
SENSE OF SMELL 2 WAYS TO SMELL: -- THROUGH THE NOSE TO OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM -- THROUGH THE MOUTH, UP THE BACK OF THE THROAT TO THE OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM = RETRONASAL
SMELLING AROMA STANDARDS WE USE ONLY THE DIRECT - OR THROUGH THE NOSE – SMELLING WITH WINE AROMA REFERENCE STANDARDS
Here’s a list of known compounds: 181 esters 29 nitrogen-containing compounds 18 sulfur-containing compounds 52 alcohols 75 aldehydes & ketones 22 acetals 18 lactones 2 ethers, 11 furans, 18 epoxides How many aromas are there in wine?
Too many aromas – too much confusion WE NEED A WAY TO ORGANIZE ALL OF THESE AROMAS SO THAT WE CAN MAKE SOME SENSE OUT OF IT. DR. ANN NOBLE (RECENTLY RETIRED) AND HER COLLEAGUES AT UC DAVIS ORGANIZED WINE AROMAS INTO A WHEEL WITH 12 MAJOR SECTIONS.
We have given you a copy of the Wine Aroma Wheel. Please bring it with you to the workshop tomorrow. WINE AROMA WHEEL
So what is an “aroma reference standard”? As “pure” or “true” a copy of an aroma perceived in wine in a 30mL sample For example – the aroma of lime in Riesling or of butter in Chardonnay
How do we make an aroma reference standard? We “spike” a red or a white wine with a natural product or a chemical that will give you the desired aroma For example: (1) use lime juice and peel for “lime” character of Riesling; (2) use diacetyl to produce the buttery aroma common in wines which have undergone malolactic fermentation.
Tonight we have 6 aroma reference standards for you smell: 1 - Blackcurrant 2 - Blackberry 3 - Anise 4 - Black pepper 5 - Oak 6 - Leather
What are you supposed to do with an aroma reference standard? Swirl the glass – it contains only 1oz (30mL) so that it can easily be swirled without fear of spilling. Put your nose in the glass and sniff deeply. Sometimes we say to close your eyes at the same time because it may make your sense of smell keener.
STANDARD #1 – BLACKCURRANT Fruity → Berry Find on aroma wheel Swirl glass and smell DO NOT TASTE
STANDARD #1 – BLACKCURRANT Recipe: Add 5mL Ribena (blackcurrant juice concentrate made in UK and commonly consumed in UK, New Zealand & Australia) to 25mL wine.
STANDARD #2 – BLACKBERRY Fruity → Berry Find on aroma wheel Swirl glass and smell DO NOT TASTE
STANDARD #2 – BLACKBERRY Recipe: Blend 4 oz frozen blackberries in 50mL Syrah wine. Add 1 tsp puree to 25mL wine.
STANDARD #3 – ANISE Spicy Find on aroma wheel Swirl glass and smell DO NOT TASTE
STANDARD #3 – ANISE Recipe: Add 0.3mL anise extract to a 750-bottle of Syrah wine. Can also make it by crushing anise seeds.
STANDARD #4 – BLACK PEPPER Spicy Find on aroma wheel Swirl glass and smell DO NOT TASTE
STANDARD #4 – BLACK PEPPER Recipe: Add 1/16 tsp ground black pepper to 60mL Syrah wine.
STANDARD #5 – OAK Woody → Resinous Find on aroma wheel Swirl glass and smell DO NOT TASTE
STANDARD #5 – OAK Recipe: Make a 10% suspension of oak dust in Syrah wine. Let it extract overnight. Add 50mL extract to 700mL Syrah wine.
STANDARD #6 – LEATHER Not on aroma wheel Swirl glass and smell – DO NOT TASTE Recipe Cut four ~0.5mm pieces of leather shoelaces. Add to 1oz of Syrah wine. Swirl over ~ an hour to extract character.