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Sensory Evaluation The human analysis of the taste, smell, sound, feel and appearance of food.

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Presentation on theme: "Sensory Evaluation The human analysis of the taste, smell, sound, feel and appearance of food."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sensory Evaluation The human analysis of the taste, smell, sound, feel and appearance of food.

2 Influences on Food Preferences
Physical: Issues that can affect the ability to detect flavors: Body chemistry Taste blind Number of taste buds Supertasters Age Babies more sensitive Gender Women during pregnancy

3 Influences of Food Preferences
Psychological: Taste Bias: a like or dislike that is linked to past positive or negative experiences Label terms Brand names Advertising Peers Setting (depends on format of taste testing)

4 Influences of Food Preferences
Cultural: Beliefs and behaviors strongly influence exposures to food and resulting food preferences Religion/Religious Practices Hindu, Buddhist, Judaism Lifestyle European lifestyle includes shopping for fresh ingredients daily Eating the same meal more than once a day Holiday traditions Thanksgiving, Halloween, etc.

5 Influences of Food Preferences
Environmental: People are more likely to eat what is available and economical Geography Climate Food costs Obtainability Immediate surroundings affect food preferences Most children learn to like foods they are exposed to Preferences carry on into adulthood

6 Overcoming Taste/Food Bias
Evaluating food goes far beyond “like” or “dislike” Train your taste buds Taste is a mental exercise Use culinary terminology Interpret food; don’t just eat it

7 Scientifically testing food using the
5 basic senses: Sight Smell Appearance Aroma Touch Taste Texture Flavor Hearing (not a main sensory characteristic)

8 Appearance Appearance: size, shape, condition, and color of a product
Evaluated on both the exterior and interior of a product Example: Muffins Peaked, rounded, tunnels on the inside, size of air cells, etc

9 Measuring Appearance A colorimeter is a device that measures the color of foods in terms of hue, value, and chroma Hue: basic color Value: lightness or darkness of that color Chroma: intensity

10 Appearance Influences
Color can influence a person’s perception of other sensory characteristics Colored lights may be used in a sensory evaluation to prevent color from influencing a taste panel

11 Texture How food feels to the fingers, tongue, teeth, and palate (roof of the mouth) “mouthfeel” Refers to the texture to the palate Texture is evaluated in terms of…

12 Texture Chewiness: How well 1 part of a food slides past another without breaking VS Taffy Pudding

13 VS Texture Graininess:
Refers to the size of the particles in a food product VS Whipped Cream Grits

14 VS Texture Brittleness: How easily a food shatters or breaks apart
Crackers Cake or Strawberries

15 VS Texture Firmness: Food’s resistance to pressure
Tough foods require a considerable biting force to chew VS Beef Jerky Steak

16 VS Texture Consistency: Thinness or thickness of a product
Measured in terms of “pourability” VS Au jus Milk gravy

17 Texture Preferences Remember texture preferences are very subjective
Examples: French vs. American preferences in bread May like or dislike food based on texture alone

18 Hearing The sound a food makes when bitten or chewed Examples: Crisp

19 Taste Flavor Distinctive taste resulting from a food’s combination of

20 Taste Based on 5 basic tastes Sweet Salty Sour Bitter Savory

21 Flow of Taste Buds Research indicates that a food’s taste is related to the shape of the food’s molecules Molecule of food matches to particular taste bud Nerve ending sends a message to the brain Brain knows which nerve impulse was sent from that particular taste bud

22 Factors Affecting Taste
Sour foods are evaluated in terms of Astringency: The ability of a substance to draw up muscles in the mouth “Mouth-puckering power” of a food

23 Factors Affecting Taste
Temperature Flavor of some foods become more intense as the food becomes warmer On the other hand, heating some foods to high temperatures may lose some flavors

24 Smell Aroma: The odor of a food 20,000 different aromas

25 Smell “Aroma” Volatile: Olfactory Bulb:
Substances that contain particles that evaporate or become gaseous quickly Olfactory Bulb: Bundle of nerve fibers Located at the base of the brain Associates 1000’s of types of nerve stimulation with specific foods and/or experiences

26 Smell “Aroma” Odor results from volatile particles coming in contact with the olfactory bulb The brain links various nerve stimulations with specific foods and experiences

27 Aroma Test The nose only picks up CHANGE of smells
Waft the test tube containing the vanilla bean & cinnamon stick Waft the test tube containing only the cinnamon stick Waft the 1st test tube again (containing both) What aroma(s) do you smell in the 1st test tube the second time around? The nose only picks up CHANGE of smells Interesting Fact: Right handed people smell better with right nostril and vice versa

28 Volunteers Needed Must be willing to eat food without seeing it first
Plug nose Close eyes Chew Open eyes (still not your nose) Results: Nose Pinched? Sweet & Chewy Nose Open? Retronasal allows for licorice taste to come through Must be willing to eat food without seeing it first

29 Explain a chip to an alien…
Each group will receive 1 bowl of chips Using all of your sense, describe how you perceive your chips based on: Appearance Texture Hearing Flavor Taste Aroma Be ready to explain your product as although someone has NEVER had a chip in their life!

30 Lab: Odor Recognition

31 Taste Test Panels A taste test panel evaluates food, flavor, texture, appearance, and aroma Trained panelists discern subtle sensory differences, as when developing new products Consumer test panels help determine products the average consumer will prefer These untrained panelists represent the buying public by Comparing a new product to one on the market Evaluating new types of products

32 Control of Influencing Factors
Influence from other testers Products may be tested by one person at a time or by testers in a separate booth to prevent seeing facial expressions Panelists receive strict instructions to remain quiet during the evaluation

33 Control of Influencing Factors
Environmental factors Light levels in the testing rooms are the same Tests take place in a room separate from the food preparation room Testers sip warm water between each sample taste to prevent lingering flavors All product samples are served at the same temperature

34 Control of Influencing Factors
Psychological biases Scientists identify samples with 3-digit codes Prevent a bias for the lowest number (1) and the letter that starts the alphabet (A) Research indicates tasters can reliably judge only 4 or 5 samples at one time

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