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Sensory Evaluation The human analysis of the taste, smell, sound, feel and appearance of food.

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Presentation on theme: "Sensory Evaluation The human analysis of the taste, smell, sound, feel and appearance of food."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sensory Evaluation The human analysis of the taste, smell, sound, feel and appearance of food.

2 Influences on Food Preferences 1.Physical:  Issues that can affect the ability to detect flavors:  Body chemistry  Taste blind  Number of taste buds  Supertasters  Age  Babies more sensitive  Gender  Women during pregnancy

3 Influences of Food Preferences 2.Psychological:  Taste Bias: a like or dislike that is linked to past positive or negative experiences  Label terms  Brand names  Advertising  Peers  Setting (depends on format of taste testing)

4 Influences of Food Preferences 3.Cultural:  Beliefs and behaviors strongly influence exposures to food and resulting food preferences  Religion/Religious Practices  Hindu, Buddhist, Judaism  Lifestyle  European lifestyle includes shopping for fresh ingredients daily  Eating the same meal more than once a day  Holiday traditions  Thanksgiving, Halloween, etc.

5 Influences of Food Preferences 4.Environmental:  People are more likely to eat what is available and economical  Geography  Climate  Food costs  Obtainability  Immediate surroundings affect food preferences  Most children learn to like foods they are exposed to  Preferences carry on into adulthood

6 Overcoming Taste/Food Bias  Evaluating food goes far beyond “like” or “dislike”  Train your taste buds  Taste is a mental exercise  Use culinary terminology  Interpret food; don’t just eat it

7 Scientifically testing food using the 5 basic senses: 1.Sight o Appearance 2.Touch o Texture 3.Hearing (not a main sensory characteristic) 4.Smell o Aroma 5.Taste o Flavor

8 Appearance  Appearance: size, shape, condition, and color of a product  Evaluated on both the exterior and interior of a product  Example: Muffins  Peaked, rounded, tunnels on the inside, size of air cells, etc

9 Measuring Appearance  A colorimeter is a device that measures the color of foods in terms of hue, value, and chroma  Hue: basic color  Value: lightness or darkness of that color  Chroma: intensity

10 Appearance Influences  Color can influence a person’s perception of other sensory characteristics  Colored lights may be used in a sensory evaluation to prevent color from influencing a taste panel

11 Texture  How food feels to the fingers, tongue, teeth, and palate (roof of the mouth)  “mouthfeel”  Refers to the texture to the palate  Texture is evaluated in terms of…

12 Texture 1.Chewiness:  How well 1 part of a food slides past another without breaking VS Taffy Pudding

13 Texture 2.Graininess:  Refers to the size of the particles in a food product VS Whipped Cream Grits

14 Texture 3.Brittleness:  How easily a food shatters or breaks apart VS Crackers Cake or Strawberries

15 Texture 4.Firmness:  Food’s resistance to pressure  Tough foods require a considerable biting force to chew VS Beef Jerky Steak

16 Texture 5.Consistency:  Thinness or thickness of a product  Measured in terms of “pourability” VS Au jus Milk gravy

17 Texture Preferences  Remember texture preferences are very subjective  Examples:  French vs. American preferences in bread  May like or dislike food based on texture alone

18 Hearing  The sound a food makes when bitten or chewed  Examples:  Crisp  Soggy

19 Taste  Flavor  Distinctive taste resulting from a food’s combination of  Taste  Aroma

20 Taste Based on 5 basic tastes 1.Sweet 2.Salty 3.Sour 4.Bitter 5.Savory

21 Flow of Taste Buds  Research indicates that a food’s taste is related to the shape of the food’s molecules Molecule of food matches to particular taste bud Nerve ending sends a message to the brain Brain knows which nerve impulse was sent from that particular taste bud

22 Factors Affecting Taste  Sour foods are evaluated in terms of  Astringency:  The ability of a substance to draw up muscles in the mouth  “Mouth-puckering power” of a food

23 Factors Affecting Taste  Temperature  Flavor of some foods become more intense as the food becomes warmer  On the other hand, heating some foods to high temperatures may lose some flavors

24 Smell  Aroma:  The odor of a food  20,000 different aromas

25 Smell“Aroma”  Volatile:  Substances that contain particles that evaporate or become gaseous quickly  Olfactory Bulb:  Bundle of nerve fibers  Located at the base of the brain  Associates 1000’s of types of nerve stimulation with specific foods and/or experiences

26 Smell“Aroma”  Odor results from volatile particles coming in contact with the olfactory bulb  The brain links various nerve stimulations with specific foods and experiences

27 Aroma Test 1.Waft the test tube containing the vanilla bean & cinnamon stick 2.Waft the test tube containing only the cinnamon stick 3.Waft the 1 st test tube again (containing both) What aroma(s) do you smell in the 1 st test tube the second time around? The nose only picks up CHANGE of smells Interesting Fact: Right handed people smell better with right nostril and vice versa

28 Volunteers Needed  Must be willing to eat food without seeing it first 1.Plug nose 2.Close eyes 3.Chew 4.Open eyes (still not your nose) Results: Nose Pinched?  Sweet & Chewy Nose Open?  Retronasal allows for licorice taste to come through

29 Explain a chip to an alien…  Each group will receive 1 bowl of chips  Using all of your sense, describe how you perceive your chips based on:  Appearance  Texture  Hearing  Flavor  Taste  Aroma  Be ready to explain your product as although someone has NEVER had a chip in their life!

30 Lab: Odor Recognition

31 Taste Test Panels  A taste test panel evaluates food, flavor, texture, appearance, and aroma  Trained panelists discern subtle sensory differences, as when developing new products  Consumer test panels help determine products the average consumer will prefer  These untrained panelists represent the buying public by  Comparing a new product to one on the market  Evaluating new types of products

32 Control of Influencing Factors 1.Influence from other testers  Products may be tested by one person at a time or by testers in a separate booth to prevent seeing facial expressions  Panelists receive strict instructions to remain quiet during the evaluation

33 Control of Influencing Factors 2.Environmental factors  Light levels in the testing rooms are the same  Tests take place in a room separate from the food preparation room  Testers sip warm water between each sample taste to prevent lingering flavors  All product samples are served at the same temperature

34 Control of Influencing Factors 3.Psychological biases  Scientists identify samples with 3-digit codes  Prevent a bias for the lowest number (1) and the letter that starts the alphabet (A)  Research indicates tasters can reliably judge only 4 or 5 samples at one time

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