Presentation on theme: "The Chemical Senses Gustatory. All have Chemoreceptors In order for a sensation to be registered by the individual … the chemical (aroma or taste sensation)"— Presentation transcript:
The Chemical Senses Gustatory
All have Chemoreceptors In order for a sensation to be registered by the individual … the chemical (aroma or taste sensation) must be dissolved in solution. Mucus Saliva
Gustatory Pathway Most all taste receptors are located on the tongue in raised structures called Papillae
Gustatory Pathway There are a few receptors in the lining of the cheek and soft pallet
Gustatory Pathway Epithelial supporting cells forming the taste bud have microvilli called Gustatory Hairs connected directly to dendrites Gustatory cells are shed and replaced every 7 to 10 days
Gustatory Pathway The act of tasting evokes reflexes in the digestive system. Increase of saliva production Increase of gastric juices release
Gustatory Pathway The digestive process begins in the mouth ?
Gustatory Pathway Taste is approximately 80% Olfactory
Gustatory Pathway The Hot sensation of peppers excite pain receptors
Gustatory Pathway Thermo receptors, mechanoreceptors, and nociceptors stimulation of these receptor cites may enhance or detract from the quality of the sensation
Gustatory Pathway There are three major types of papillae: 1. Filiform: no taste buds found
Gustatory Pathway 2. Fungiform: Mushroom shaped All over the tongue Highest concentration found at the tip and sides Taste buds are found on the top of the the papillae
Gustatory Pathway 3. Circumvallates: Largest and least numerous (7-12) form a V at the back of the tongue The taste buds are located on the sides of these papillae
Taste Many substances produce several sensations, thus exciting many different taste buds. Many of the taste buds will respond to each of the following qualities.
Taste Bitter: Produced by alkaloids (hydroxide ions) generally found on the back of the tongue
Taste Salt: Metal ions Appears to be evenly distributed
Taste Sour Produced by hydrogen ions Generally found on the sides of the tongue
Taste Sweet: Sugars and some amino acids Generally found on the tip of the tongue
Olfactory Pathway Receptors are found on the roof of the nasal cavity - bilaterally There are approximately 5 million olfactory receptor cells
Olfactory Pathway Collectively, these receptors are referred to as : Olfactory epithelium
Olfactory Pathway Regulation of air flow: To reduce the stimulation of receptors: Inhale slowly through your nose Or inhale through your mouth What bone structures allow for the air being channeled?
Olfactory Pathway Regulation of air flow: To heighten the stimulation of receptors: Inhale quickly through your nose with your mouth closed
Olfactory Pathway The sensation of an Aroma is stimulated by the excitation of olfactory hairs protruding from the olfactory epithelium in a field of mucosa manufactured by glands in the lamina propria
Olfactory Pathway In order for an aroma to be detected, it must be volatile 1. the aroma must be in a gaseous state 2. the aroma must be water soluble Why can we not smell natural gas?
Olfactory Pathway Acclamation A process where the sense of olfaction adapts quickly CNS response is not a diminished response from the receptor group
Olfactory Pathway Olfactory neurons are quite different from other neurons: basal cell differentiation they are replaced approximately every 60 days by a process called basal cell differentiation in the olfactory epithelium
Compare: Gustatory paths separates four distinct chemical sensations Olfactory paths distinguish tens of thousands of different sensations with only 15 to 30 different types of receptors
Compare: The sensation of smell requires the stimulation of ALL receptors in the nasal concha prior to detection The sense of taste? Each taste is independent of the other and does not require the other receptors to be stimulated
Compare: The irritating response of strong aromas such as ammonia stimulates pain receptors What is the response and why is it important? Pain receptor stimulation in the mouth provides us with the sensation of hot (spicy). How do you deal with food that is too spicy?