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Standard 2. Calcium Bones and teeth contain 99 percent of all calcium in the body. The other 1 percent is distributed within cells and in body fluids,

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Presentation on theme: "Standard 2. Calcium Bones and teeth contain 99 percent of all calcium in the body. The other 1 percent is distributed within cells and in body fluids,"— Presentation transcript:

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3 Calcium Bones and teeth contain 99 percent of all calcium in the body. The other 1 percent is distributed within cells and in body fluids, such as the blood. This small percentage is extremely important in maintaining body functions, including: Clotting of blood after injury Nerve conduction Muscle contraction Enzyme regulation Control of blood pressure

4 Phosphorus The main function of phosphorus is in the formation of bones and teeth. It plays an important role in the body's utilization of carbohydrates and fats and in the synthesis of protein for the growth, maintenance, and repair of cells and tissues. It is also crucial for the production of ATP, a molecule the body uses to store energy.carbohydratesfatsprotein Phosphorus works with the B vitamins. It also assists in the contraction of muscles, in the functioning of kidneys, in maintaining the regularity of the heartbeat, and in nerve conduction.

5 Potassium Regulates heart function Reduces blood pressure Essential for protein and nucleic acid synthesis Required for normal fluid balance Fundamental for normal nerve and muscle function Converts glucose into glycogen (muscle fuel) Important role in kidney function Helps lungs eliminate carbon dioxide Needed to maintain acid/alkali balance

6 Sulfur Sulfur is a mineral that is present in all cells, especially in cartilage and keratin of skin and hair. Food contain sulfur, and the need for this mineral is met when there is an adequate protein in our diet. Sulfur is important for a healthy hair, skin and nails, it also helps maintain oxygen balance for proper brain function. Other Function in the Body : Purify and tone system and promote bile secretion. Constituent of essential amino-acids. It is a mild laxative, thus preventing constipation. Helps treat rheumatism, gout and bronchitis. Use in the treatment of skin diseases.

7 Sodium Sodium is an element that the body needs to function properly. Function The body uses sodium to regulate blood pressure and blood volume. Sodium is also critical for the functioning of muscles and nerves.blood pressure Food Sources Sodium occurs naturally in most foods. The most common form of sodium is sodium chloride, which is table salt. Milk, beets, and celery also naturally contain sodium, as does drinking water, although the amount varies depending on the source. Sodium is also added to various food products. Some of these added forms are monosodium glutamate, sodium nitrite, sodium saccharin, baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), and sodium benzoate. These are ingredients in condiments and seasonings such as Worcestershire sauce, soy sauce, onion salt, garlic salt, and bouillon cubes. Processed meats, such as bacon, sausage, and ham, and canned soups and vegetables are all examples of foods that contain added sodium. Fast foods are generally very high in sodium.Fast foods Side Effects Too much sodium will contribute to high blood pressure in those who are sensitive to sodium. Most people with high blood pressure may be told to reduce their sodium intake. If you have high blood pressure, you should discuss this issue with your doctor. Sodium may lead to a serious build-up of fluid in people with congestive heart failure, cirrhosis, or kidney disease. Such people should be on a strict sodium-restricted diet, as prescribed by their doctor.congestive heart failurecirrhosis kidney disease

8 chlorine In addition to its functions as an electrolyte, chloride combines with hydrogen in the stomach to make hydrochloric acid, a powerful digestive enzyme that is responsible for the break down of proteins, absorption of other metallic minerals, and activation of intrinsic factor, which in turn absorbs vitamin B12. Chloride is specially transported into the gastric lumen, in exchange for another negatively charged electrolyte (bicarbonate), in order to maintain electrical neutrality across the stomach membrane. After utilization in hydrochloric acid, some chloride is reabsorbed by the intestine, back into the blood stream where it is required for maintenance of extracellular fluid volume. Chloride is both actively and passively absorbed by the body, depending on the current metabolic demands. A constant exchange of chloride and bicarbonate, between red blood cells and the plasma helps to govern the pH balance and transport of carbon dioxide, a waste product of respiration, from the body. With sodium and potassium, chloride works in the nervous system to aid in the transport of electrical impulses throughout the body, as movement of negatively charged chloride into the cell propagates the nervous electrical potential.

9 Magnesium Magnesium is needed for more than 300 biochemical reactions in the body. It helps maintain normal muscle and nerve function, keeps heart rhythm steady, supports a healthy immune system, and keeps bones strong. Magnesium also helps regulate blood sugar levels, promotes normal blood pressure, and is known to be involved in energy metabolism and protein synthesis [2- 3]. There is an increased interest in the role of magnesium in preventing and managing disorders such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Dietary magnesium is absorbed in the small intestines. Magnesium is excreted through the kidneys [1-3,4].2- 31-34


11 Carbohydrates Definition  an organic compound made of C, H, and O with a ratio of 2 hydrogens for each carbon and oxygen Monosaccharide: simple sugar, a glucose or fructose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) Disaccharide: 2 simple sugars attached; a sucrose molecule Polysaccharide: made of many monosaccharides; starch, cellulose - this is how most organisms store nutrients

12 Lipids Lipids are organic compounds that have many more carbons and hydrogens than oxygens - (ex: C 57 H 110 O 6 ) These are commonly called fats or oils They do not mix with water because they are nonpolar Lipids are used for storing energy, insulation, and protective coatings

13 Proteins A protein is a large complex polymer composed of C, H, O, N, and Sulfur Amino acids are the basic building blocks of all proteins – there are 20 The amino acids link together by condensation, and this bond is called a peptide bond Proteins are important for  metabolism, structure for tissues and organs, contracting muscle tissue, carrying oxygen, immunity, and much more

14 Nucleic Acids These are big molecules that store life’s information in the form of a code (the “genetic code”) The pieces of the nucleic acids are the nucleotides (made of C, H, O, N, and Phosphorus) - these are arranged into 3 parts: 1. A nitrogen base 2. A simple sugar 3. A phosphate group DNA and RNA are the nucleic acids

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