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ESSENTIAL BIOMOLECULES. Monomers & Polymers Monomers bind together to form large polymers.

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Presentation on theme: "ESSENTIAL BIOMOLECULES. Monomers & Polymers Monomers bind together to form large polymers."— Presentation transcript:


2 Monomers & Polymers Monomers bind together to form large polymers

3 CARBOHYDRATES (Sugars) Carbohydrates are compounds used to supply energy & build parts of the DNA molecule. Found in rice, bread, cereal, pasta, milk, fruit, potatoes...

4 Monosaccharides Simple sugars Galactose

5 5 Sucrose (1 glucose, 1 fructose) Maltose (2 glucose) Disaccharides Two bonded monosaccharides

6 6 Lactose (1 glucose, 1 galactose)

7 a) Glycogen (stored glucose in animals). Found in liver and muscles. Polysaccharides Many monosaccharides bonded together. sugars

8 a) Starch (stored glucose in plants).

9 c) Cellulose (structural molecule). Used by plants to build their cell walls. Main component of dietary fiber.

10 LIPIDS (Fats) Lipids make a very varied family of molecules. Found in oils, waxes & fats.

11 Structure: Glycerol molecule & up to three fatty acids (saturated or unsaturated) bonded together.

12 One glycerol molecule and up to three fatty acids (saturated or unsaturated)

13 SATURATED FAT Structural formula of a saturated fat molecule Stearic acid, a saturated fatty acid

14 Structural formula of an unsaturated fat molecule Oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid double bond causes bending UNSATURATED FAT

15 Unsaturated fats are found in plant products (olive oil, sunflower oil, margarine, avocado...). A healthier diet choice. Saturated fats are found in animal products (bacon, butter, lard...). A less healthier diet choice (exception: fish).

16 Function: long-term energy storage in the form of triglycerides.


18 18

19 Secret for weight-loss: stop eating carbohydrates. Force the body to use stored triglycerides first (exercise & diet).

20 20 Function: fat under the skin and in adipose tissue provides padding & cushions internal body structures.

21 21

22 Function: Used to build cell membranes (cell “skin”).

23 Function: Used for insulation (warmth).

24 Function: used to waterproof structures.

25 Function: the steroid family of hormones involved in many body processes are lipids.

26 TESTOSTERONE: turns little boys into men.

27 ESTROGEN: turns little girls into women.

28 PROTEINS Proteins are found everywhere in the body. They account for 50% of a cell’s dry mass, have a huge range of functions and make up an extremely important group of molecules. Found in meat, eggs, milk, cheese...

29 29 Proteins consists of many amino acids bonded together.


31 MANY, MANY DIFFERENT FUNCTIONS! 1. Build structures: organs, blood vessels, muscles, nails, hair (ex: keratin, collagen, actin & myosin). 2. Defence against infection: antibodies are proteins. 3. Transport proteins carry materials around the body (ex: hemoglobin carries oxygen). 4. Chemical control: enzymes are proteins. 5. Body control: hormones are proteins. 6. Buffer proteins prevent pH changes.

32 Actin & Myosin make muscles work

33 Keratin in hair and nails. Collagen & elastin in skin.

34 Hemoglobin in blood carries oxygen.

35 Found in meat, cheese, eggs, beans, milk products…

36 Proteins can be denatured by strong acids, strong bases and by high temperatures.

37 Denatured proteins


39 Proteins can be converted into energy-supplying molecules.


41 NUCLEIC ACIDS (DNA & RNA) Big, massive and immovable DNA is an instruction manual for building an organism. RNA is an assistant molecule necessary for the use of DNA. DNA is used to make chromosomes (46 in humans). Chromosomes are divided into genes (approx. 25000 in humans). Genes store coded information used to build proteins (1 gene=1 protein).

42 42

43 Sometime in the future?

44 Small elements and molecules needed by the body in small amounts for proper functioning. VITAMINS & MINERALS

45 Vitamin C Necessary for healthy skin & teeth.

46 Vitamin C is found in citrus fruits.

47 Lack of vitamin C leads to scurvy, a disease common in 17 & 18 th Century navies

48 SCURVY ( sp: escorbuto ) Lack of Vitamin C

49 Between 1600 – 1800 scurvy killed 1.245.789 English sailors alone.

50 Navy Surgeon James Lind

51 Vitamin D Works with calcium to maintain healthy bones.


53 53

54 Calcium promotes strong teeth and bones, and plays major roles during blood clotting, nerve action and heart action.

55 55

56 56 Iron in hemoglobin gives blood its red color & metallic taste, and it carries oxygen. Essential for proper blood function.

57 57


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