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Information-Processing View Information-processing –The flowchart –The computer.

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Presentation on theme: "Information-Processing View Information-processing –The flowchart –The computer."— Presentation transcript:

1 Information-Processing View Information-processing –The flowchart –The computer

2 Vasta, 3e Fig. 9.1 An Example of an Information- Processing Flowchart (Figure adapted with permission from “The Control of Short-Term Memory” by R.C. Atkinson and R.M. Shiffrin, 1971, Scientific American, 225, p. 82. Copyright credit Allen Beechel)

3 Memory In Infancy In Infancy Varieties of Memories Assessing Recognition Memory Assessing Recall Memory

4 Memory in Older Children The improvement of memory with age may reflect –Greater use of mnemonic strategies Rehearsal (saying over-and-over) Organization into conceptual categories Elaboration of items by linkage to a general image or story –Greater knowledge about memory Metamemory refers to knowledge about memory –More powerful cognitive structures

5 Memory and… Expertise Autobiographical Memory Constructive memory –distortions

6 Meaningful chess positions: Recall is better in chess experts than chess novices Random chess positions: Recall is equal in chess experts and chess novices Expertise and Memory Recall (Figure reprinted with permission from “Chess Expertise and Memory for Chess Positions in Children and Adults” by W. Schneider, H. Gruber, A. Gold, and K. Opwis, 1993 J. of Experimental Child Psychology, 56, p. 535. Copyright © 1993 by Academic Press.)

7 Mechanisms of Cognitive Change Encoding Automatization Strategy construction Strategy selection

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