Presentation on theme: "Modules 6-1 & 6-3 Information Processing. Not a single, unified theory Investigates: Attention Memory Thinking Metacognition: Knowledge of when and how."— Presentation transcript:
Modules 6-1 & 6-3 Information Processing
Not a single, unified theory Investigates: Attention Memory Thinking Metacognition: Knowledge of when and how to use strategies to think, remember, and problem-solve.
Principles of Change Automaticity No conscious effort required Strategy Construction Self-modification Metacognition Gradual change
Speed of Mental Processing Rises dramatically across childhood Young adult comparison study 10 year olds were 1.8 times slower 12 year olds were 1.5 times slower 15 year olds were the same Declines from the 40’s Experience or biological maturation? myelination
Speed of Mental Processing Does processing speed matter? May help you think better May help you learn faster May be compensated for by experience ***correlational study showed that lower IQ scores were associated with an earlier death
Attention Habituation in Infancy Long-lookers vs. short-lookers Infants with brain damage do not habituate well
Attention in Childhood Control improves with age 10-month olds more distractible than 26 month olds Preschoolers may watch TV for half an hour at a time Anderson and others (1985) visual attention drastically improves in the preschool years
Selective Attention Older & more socially advantaged children are more focused & less distractible Ruff & Hobart (1996) Ability to pay attention in preschool is related to achievement, relationship & social skills Related to school readiness Peer rejection and aggressive behavior are related to lack of ability to control attention
Attention to Salience vs. Relevance Preschoolers pay attention to whatever stands out After age 6 or 7, there is more cognitive control Older children shift attention better Older adults may begin to lose the ability to shift attention (driving)
Memory Constructed (& Reconstructed) Guided by schemas – existing knowledge & understanding Misinformation Effect (can be distorted)/source amnesia Bugs Bunny study
Development of Memory Rovee-Collier Babies have detailed memory at 2 ½ months Ties a baby’s ankle to a mobile. They kick and move the mobile. What do they do if placed in the crib weeks later? They kick, but only if the mobile is the same. Infants 2-6 months can carry memory to 1 ½ - 2 years. Is it only implicit memory?
Memory in Infancy Other researchers - Babies do not show explicit memory until the second half of the first year of life. Explicit (conscious) memory improves substantially during the second year.
Infantile Amnesia No permanent long-term memory before age 3, little in pre-school (infantile amnesia). May have to do with lack of enough development in the hippocampus and/or pre-frontal lobes
Children’s Short-Term Memory Memory span in digits 2 digits2-3 year olds 5 digits 7 year olds 6 ½ digits 13 year olds (Related to speed of repetition)
Children’s Long-term Memory - Eyewitnesses There are age differences in susceptibility to suggestion. There are also individual differences (low self- concept, low support from parents). Interview techniques can produce substantial distortions.
Long-term Memory Strategies Rehearsing Organizing Elaboration (Thinking about it) Personal relevance Images
Children’s Long-term Memory Increase strategy use with age Fuzzy-trace theory Using gist vs. verbatim Affected by Knowledge base Schema elaboration Chase & Chi
Metamemory (Use of Strategies) Improves During Childhood Ages 5-6 know that Familiar items are easier to remember Short lists are easier than long ones Recognition is easier than recall Forgetting becomes more likely over time
Metamemory (Use of Strategies) Improves During Childhood At Ages 5-6, do not know that related items are easier to remember Gist is easier than verbatim Inflated opinion of their memory abilities
Adult Memory Working memory Peak at 45? Decline at 57? Processing speed?
Facts & Findings Young adults have better episodic memory than older ones Among older adults, older memories are less accurate than more recent ones Older adults take longer to retrieve semantic memory
Facts & Findings Implicit memory is less likely to be affected by aging Source amnesia gets worse (source memory declines) in older adulthood Prospective memory (remembering to do something) Time-based poorer than event-based
Adult Memory: Summary & Review Declines in Processing speed Working memory Episodic memory
Negative Influences on Memory in Older Adulthood Physical declines Anxiety & depression Beliefs about losing memory important Attitudes & feelings important (e.g., low self-efficacy) Good health will reduce, but not eliminate declines