Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Information Processing Chapter 8. Information Processing Approach Goal = examine how children/adults operate on/process information Goal = examine how.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Information Processing Chapter 8. Information Processing Approach Goal = examine how children/adults operate on/process information Goal = examine how."— Presentation transcript:

1 Information Processing Chapter 8

2 Information Processing Approach Goal = examine how children/adults operate on/process information Goal = examine how children/adults operate on/process information Have limited capacities Have limited capacities No single theory No single theory General approach General approach Reasoning  processing abilities Reasoning  processing abilities More efficient processing = better reasoning More efficient processing = better reasoning Focus on domain specific skills rather than general skills that apply across domains Focus on domain specific skills rather than general skills that apply across domains

3 Models of Information Processing Atkinson & Shiffrin’s multistore model Atkinson & Shiffrin’s multistore model –Three parts of system  Sensory register  Short term memory (STM) (book = short term store)  Long term memory (LTM) (book = long term store) –Inborn and universal –Analogy = computer  Stores = hardware  Control processes/mental strategies = software

4 Atkinson & Shiffrin’s Model Sensory Register Sensory Register –Sights/sounds represented directly –Limited capacity Short-Term Memory (STM) Short-Term Memory (STM) –Conscious part –Limited capacity  7 +/- 2 units of information –Limited time

5 Atkinson & Shiffrin’s Model Long-Term Memory (LTM) Long-Term Memory (LTM) –Unlimited capacity –Unlimited time frame –Organization and memory strategies

6 Figure 8.1 A schematic model of the human information processing system. ADAPTED FROM ATKINSON & SHIFFRIN, 1968.

7 Levels-of-Processing Model No “containers” with fixed limits No “containers” with fixed limits Retention  depth Retention  depth

8 Levels-of-Processing Model QueenPlayChairHot BreadButterLoveLamp WestThinKingBottle BoyTableLakeCandy ColdGirlHat Photograph EastNorthPencilBelt

9 Levels-of-Processing Model Shallow  decays Shallow  decays Deeper  retained Deeper  retained Problems due to distribution of attention Problems due to distribution of attention

10 Levels-of-Processing Model STM/STS replaced by working memory STM/STS replaced by working memory –The conscious pool of attentional resources from which our information-processing activities draw (Baddeley, 1992) Attention depends on learned/automatic processes Attention depends on learned/automatic processes Operating efficiency hypothesis – Case Operating efficiency hypothesis – Case

11 Comparisons Hardware and software change Hardware and software change Levels-of-processing  software Levels-of-processing  software Control processes improve with age Control processes improve with age Controversy regarding hardware… Controversy regarding hardware…

12 Control Processes (Software/Strategies) Strategy = deliberately implemented, goal-directed operations used to improve task performance Strategy = deliberately implemented, goal-directed operations used to improve task performance Increase likelihood information in STM  to LTM Increase likelihood information in STM  to LTM In general, younger children = fewer strategies; less effective In general, younger children = fewer strategies; less effective

13 Control Processes (Software/Strategies) Production deficiency Production deficiency Utilization deficiency Utilization deficiency

14 Control Processes (Software/Strategies) Children of all ages have a variety of strategies that they choose from when solving problems Children of all ages have a variety of strategies that they choose from when solving problems –not stagelike Rehearsal Rehearsal –Rarely < 6-7 years

15 Control Processes (Software/Strategies) Organization Organization Elaboration Elaboration –Develops late, compared to other strategies

16 Retrieval of Information Recognition Recognition Recall Recall –Free recall vs. cued recall Reconstruction Reconstruction

17 Fuzzy-Trace Theory Continuum of memory representations Continuum of memory representations –Verbatim = literal –Fuzzy (gist) = content, but not detail

18 Capacity vs. Knowledge Why is the memory of older children/adults better than that of younger children? Why is the memory of older children/adults better than that of younger children? Capacity Capacity Knowledge Knowledge

19 Capacity vs. Knowledge Differences in children’s and adults’ memory  knowledge Differences in children’s and adults’ memory  knowledge Chi: children and adults tested on memory for chess pieces Chi: children and adults tested on memory for chess pieces –Chess position presented for 10 seconds –Immediate recall – place pieces on blank board –Repeated recall – keep going until perfect –4 lists of 10 digits were also presented –Children chess experts, adults novices

20 Capacity vs. Knowledge Chi: Results Chi: Results –Interaction between age and material Children outperform adults when they’re more knowledgeable Children outperform adults when they’re more knowledgeable

21 Capacity vs. Knowledge Children in Chi’s study were 9 years old, what about younger children? Children in Chi’s study were 9 years old, what about younger children? Problem: children’s knowledge may improve performance, but to measure STM capacity, need a test not influenced by differences in knowledge Problem: children’s knowledge may improve performance, but to measure STM capacity, need a test not influenced by differences in knowledge

22 Attentional Processing Control Control –Focused and sustained –Infants and preschoolers were seated at a table with age-appropriate toys  Concentrated involvement

23 Attentional Processing Patterns of Attention Patterns of Attention –Young infants habituation –Preschoolers –5-6 year olds Adaptability Adaptability

24 Attentional Processing Patricia Miller: strategy development follows a predictable sequence Patricia Miller: strategy development follows a predictable sequence –Production deficiency –Control deficiency –Utilization deficiency

25 Planfulness Thinking out a sequence of acts ahead of time and allocating attention accordingly to reach a goal Thinking out a sequence of acts ahead of time and allocating attention accordingly to reach a goal Infancy Infancy Preschool Preschool

26 Memory Infantile amnesia Infantile amnesia –Nonverbal form –Sense of self

27 Development of Scripted Memory Scripts – schemes for recurring events organized in terms of causal and temporal sequences Scripts – schemes for recurring events organized in terms of causal and temporal sequences –Organizes world –Tend to remember info consistent with scripts –Become more elaborate with age

28 Eyewitness Memory Attorney:“How did you get hurt at naptime?” Child:“I don’t know.” Attorney:“Did Sandy hurt you?” Child:nodded yes

29 Eyewitness Memory Older children > younger children Older children > younger children Preschooler  accurate, fewer precise details Preschooler  accurate, fewer precise details False memories are as resistant to forgetting as true memories are False memories are as resistant to forgetting as true memories are

30 Eyewitness Memory Leading questions suggest answers Leading questions suggest answers Even adults are susceptible Even adults are susceptible –Loftus – film of car crash Age-related changes in susceptibility to misleading questions Age-related changes in susceptibility to misleading questions

31 Eyewitness Memory Ages 3-12 told story with pictures Ages 3-12 told story with pictures Some information presented both verbally and in pictures, some information in pictures only Some information presented both verbally and in pictures, some information in pictures only Story about a girl on the first day of school who ate her breakfast too quickly and got a stomachache Story about a girl on the first day of school who ate her breakfast too quickly and got a stomachache Stomachache verbally and in pictures, eggs in picture only Stomachache verbally and in pictures, eggs in picture only

32 Eyewitness Memory Results (% correct) Results (% correct) Control: Biased:

33 Eyewitness Memory Perhaps no memory distortion Perhaps no memory distortion Children are intimidated by authority? Children are intimidated by authority? 4 and 5 year olds given same task, but 7 year olds did interview second day 4 and 5 year olds given same task, but 7 year olds did interview second day

34 Eyewitness Memory Results Results biased:53% correct unbiased:72% correct Selected children from experiment 1 who fell in 4-5 year old range biased:34% correct unbiased:74% correct

35 Eyewitness Memory Misleading suggestions  memory errors Misleading suggestions  memory errors Children, especially young children, may be most susceptible, but it’s not clear why Children, especially young children, may be most susceptible, but it’s not clear why Children younger than 9/10 are far more susceptible than older children, adolescents, and adults Children younger than 9/10 are far more susceptible than older children, adolescents, and adults

36 Memory for Actual Events 4 and 7 year olds went to a trailer where an adult interacted with them and played games 4 and 7 year olds went to a trailer where an adult interacted with them and played games –Simon says –Clown days later returned for a memory test days later returned for a memory test –Specific questions –Misleading questions

37 Memory for Actual Events Results Results Specific questions: 4-year-olds79% correct 7-year-olds91% correct Misleading questions: 4-year-olds86% correct 7-year-olds95% correct

38 Memory for Actual Events Memory of a medical examination Memory of a medical examination Memory: Memory: –Free recall –Anatomically detailed doll –Direct and misleading questions

39 Memory for Actual Events Results Results –Genital condition –Nongenital condition –3 out of 36 falsely reported in response to misleading questions False reports rare, but did occur False reports rare, but did occur

40 Memory for Actual Events Children may underreport abuse Children may underreport abuse Be careful of leading questions Be careful of leading questions


Download ppt "Information Processing Chapter 8. Information Processing Approach Goal = examine how children/adults operate on/process information Goal = examine how."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google