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Child Psychology: The Modern Science, 3e by Vasta, Haith, and Miller Paul J. Wellman Texas A&M University John Wiley and Sons, Inc. © 1999 PowerPoint 

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Presentation on theme: "Child Psychology: The Modern Science, 3e by Vasta, Haith, and Miller Paul J. Wellman Texas A&M University John Wiley and Sons, Inc. © 1999 PowerPoint "— Presentation transcript:

1 Child Psychology: The Modern Science, 3e by Vasta, Haith, and Miller Paul J. Wellman Texas A&M University John Wiley and Sons, Inc. © 1999 PowerPoint  Presentation: Chapter 9 Cognitive Development: The Information- Processing Approach

2 © 1999 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Information-Processing View n The information-processing view considers the psychological activities that allow children to deal with new information n The Information-Processing view can be modeled using –The flowchart Specifies an input and an output, with processing in between –The computer Starts with input, has programmed conversions, and has multiple outputs

3 © 1999 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.Vasta, 3e Fig. 9.1 An Example of an Information- Processing Flowchart (Figure adapted with permission from “The Control of Short-Term Memory” by R.C. Atkinson and R.M. Shiffrin, 1971, Scientific American, 225, p. 82. Copyright credit Allen Beechel)

4 © 1999 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Memory In Infancy n Evidence in support of memory processing in infants –Sensorimotor infant uses a familiar scheme (sucking, grasping) when presented with a familiar object –Infants search for objects that have been hidden from view –Infants show a preference for their mother’s voice

5 © 1999 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Varieties of Memory n Recognition memory refers to the understanding that a current stimulus has been encountered in the past –E.g. the recognition that a person has seen a photograph in the past n Recall memory refers to the retrieval of some past stimulus when the stimulus is not present –E.g. Answer the following question: Describe 3 examples of evidence for memory processes in infants….

6 © 1999 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Assessing Recognition Memory n Habituation-dishabituation procedure –The infant is exposed repeatedly to a stimulus until its looking at the stimulus is at a low value –This habituation is only possible if the infant remembers the stimulus –Dishabituation is only possible if the infant can compare the stimulus to the original stimulus

7 © 1999 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Assessing Recognition Memory n Classical conditioning procedure –Infant sucks a nipple (UCR) when a sweet solution (UCS) is squirted into the mouth –Experimenter then paired a stroking of the baby’s forehead (CS) with delivery of sucrose into the mouth (UCS) –Eventually, forehead stroking (CS) elicited sucking behavior (CR) n Operant conditioning procedures –Infants can adjust their sucking rate to hear their mother’s voice

8 © 1999 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Assessing Recall Memory n Evidence supporting recall memory in infancy –Deferred imitation in which infant imitates a behavior seen on the prior day for the first time –Infant search for hidden objects –The appearance of language requires recall –Infants can imitate (recall) sequences of action E.g. those required to bath a doll

9 © 1999 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Memory in Older Children n The improvement of memory with age may reflect –Greater use of mnemonic strategies Rehearsal (saying over-and-over) Organization into conceptual categories Elaboration of items by linkage to a general image or story –Greater knowledge about memory Metamemory refers to knowledge about memory –More powerful cognitive structures

10 © 1999 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Impact of Knowledge on Memory n Constructive memory refers to the ways in which the general knowledge of a person interprets incoming information so as to alter memory –Basic idea is that memory is not like a tape recording, but rather is constructed from our current and past experiences –Constructed memory can involve distortions that are both negative and positive

11 © 1999 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.Vasta, 3e Fig. 9.4 Piaget’s Demonstration of Distortion in Constructive Memory A. Stimuli presented to child B. Stimuli recalled by child 1 week later

12 © 1999 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Expertise and Memory n Expertise refers to organized factual knowledge about some content domain –Expertise contributes to memory Chess experts show better recall for chess positions than they do for other topics Chess experts show better recall about chess than do chess novices –Expertise leads to Richer storage of information Facilitation of the use of mnemonic strategies More rapid processing of information

13 © 1999 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.Vasta, 3e Fig. 9.5 Meaningful chess positions: Recall is better in chess experts than chess novices Random chess positions: Recall is equal in chess experts and chess novices Expertise and Memory Recall (Figure reprinted with permission from “Chess Expertise and Memory for Chess Positions in Children and Adults” by W. Schneider, H. Gruber, A. Gold, and K. Opwis, 1993 J. of Experimental Child Psychology, 56, p Copyright © 1993 by Academic Press.)

14 © 1999 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Autobiographical Memory n Autobiographical memory refers to specific, personal, and long-lasting memories of a person n The emergence of autobiographical memory may relate to conversations with parents –Parents stimulate recall, emphasize rehearsal, and teach elaboration –This explanation may account for infantile amnesia (lack of autobiographical memory for the first 2-3 years of life)

15 © 1999 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Mechanisms of Cognitive Change n Encoding refers to attending to and forming internal representations of certain features of the environment n Automatization refers to cognitive efficiency as a result of practice n Strategy construction allows information to be processed faster n Strategy selection refers to greater use of effective mental strategies over less effective strategies

16 Copyright 1999 by John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY. All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission of the copyright owner. Copyright


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