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The Information Processing Approach Memory Thinking.

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Presentation on theme: "The Information Processing Approach Memory Thinking."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Information Processing Approach Memory Thinking

2 Computer and Human Comparison The Information-Processing Approach

3 Mechanisms of Processing The Information-Processing Approach Encoding Automaticity Strategy Construction Mechanism by which information gets into memory Ability to process information with little or no effort Discovering new procedure for processing information Metacognition Cognition about cognition, or knowing about knowing

4 Speed of Processing Information Assessed using reaction time tasks. Changes in speed processing: Improves dramatically through childhood and adolescence. Changes due to both myelination and experience. Decline begins in middle adulthood; continues into late adulthood. The Information-Processing Approach

5 Does Processing Speed Matter? Linked with competence in thinking. Efficient strategies can compensate for slower reaction times and speed (mental retardation). Processing linked to accumulated knowledge and abilities to perform.

6 Infancy to Adulthood Newborns can detect contours and fixate. 4-month-olds have selective attention. Joint attention begins in 7-8 month olds. Control over selective attention shows: Preschooler attends to external salient stimuli. Child of 6 to 7 attentive to relevant information. Ability to shift attention increases with age; allows for more complex task involvement. _________________________________________________ Less adept at selective attention. Older adults (50-80) performed worse in divided attention conditions than younger groups. Attention

7 Constructing Memories Schema Theory: People construct and reconstruct memories; mold to fit information already existing in mind. Schemas: mental frameworks that organize concepts and information; affects encoding and retrieval False Memories: New information such as questions or suggestions can alter memories Concerns about- Implanting false memories in eyewitnesses. Accuracy of eyewitness testimonies at trials. Children as eyewitnesses: Age differences in susceptibility. Interviewing techniques can cause distortions. Memory

8 Infancy Implicit memory: Memory without conscious recollection; skills and routine done automatically. Explicit memory: Conscious memory of facts and experiences; doesnt appear until after 6 months. Infantile Amnesia: Adults recall little or none of first three years. Due to immaturity of prefrontal lobes in brain. Considerable improvement after infancy. Memory

9 Imagery and Memory of Verbal Information Memory

10 Working Memory and Processing Speed Working memory performance peaked at 45 years of age; declined at 57 years of age. Working memory linked to: Reading and math achievement Processing speed Younger adults have better episodic memory than older adults. Older adults remember older events better than more recent events; take longer to retrieve semantic information. Accuracy fades with the aging of a memory. Memory

11 Memory for Spanish as a Function of Age Since Spanish Was Learned Memory

12 Source Memory Source Memory: Ability to remember where something was learned. Contexts (Physical/Emotional Setting and Identity of Speaker) Failures increase with age in adult years; relevancy of information affects ability. Prospective Memory: Remembering to do something in the future. Age-related declines depend on task. Time-based tasks decline more. Event-based tasks show less decline. Memory

13 Influences on the Memory of Older Adults Psychological Factors Health Beliefs, Expectations, and Feelings Education Training and mnemonics improve memory- Method of loci: storing mental images Chunking: put into manageable units Memory

14 Memory, Age, and Time of Day Tested (A.M. or P.M.)

15 Cognitive Neuroscience and Aging Brain changes influence cognitive functioning: Neural circuits Increased use of both hemispheres in processing Functioning of hippocampus Larger neural patterns for retrieval with aging Thinking

16 What Is Thinking? Manipulating and transforming information in memory. Reason, reflect, evaluate ideas, solve problems, make decisions Concepts-Categories that group things together. Perceptual categorization: as young as 7 mos. Categorization increases in second year; infants differentiate more. Thinking

17 Critical Thinking Grasping deeper meaning of ideas Involves: Ask what, how, and why Examine facts and determine evidence Recognize one or more explanations exist Compare various answers, select the best Evaluate before accepting as truth Speculate beyond what is known Few schools teach critical thinking to students: Students recite, define, describe, state, list Students not asked to analyze, create, rethink Encourage by: Presenting controversial topics for discussion Motivate students to delve deeper into issues Teachers should refrain from giving own views

18 Strategies for Critical Thinking Children teach children Reciprocal teaching-Small-group discussions Online computer consultation Adults as role models Create culture of learning, negotiating, sharing, and producing (active, not passive) Thinking

19 Scientific Thinking Aimed at identifying causal relationships Children: emphasize causal mechanisms. more influenced by happenstance than by overall pattern. Cling to old theories regardless of evidence. Have difficulty designing experiments. Problem solving and children: Teach strategies and rules to solve problems- Teacher is model, motivate children. Use effective strategy instruction. Encourage alternative strategies and approaches. Analogical problem solving: Occurs as early as age 1. Thinking

20 Thinking in Adolescence Critical Thinking If fundamental skills not developed during childhood, critical- thinking skills unlikely to mature in adolescence. Decision Making Older adolescents appear as more competent decision makers than younger adolescents. Ability does not guarantee every day usage. Thinking

21 Thinking in Adulthood Practical problem solving and expertise improve: Expertise extensive, highly organized knowledge and understanding of particular domain Use It or Lose It practice helps cognitive skills Cognitive Training can help some if skills are being lost Cognitive improvement tied to physical fitness and vitality Thinking

22 The Childs Theory of Mind Ages 2 to 3 begin to understand Perceptions Desires Emotions Age 5 realization of false beliefs Middle and late childhood mind seen as active constructor of knowledge Preschoolers have Inflated opinion of memories Little appreciation for importance of memory cues Understanding of memory abilities and skill in evaluating performance on memory tasks improves considerably by years of age Metacognition

23 Metacognition in Adolescence and Adulthood Adolescents more likely than children to effectively manage and monitor thinking Middle age adults have accumulated a great deal of metacognitive knowledge Older adults tend to overestimate memory problems they experience on daily basis Metacognition

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