Presentation on theme: "Information processing"— Presentation transcript:
1Information processing The Information Processing ApproachMemoryThinkingInformation processing
2Computer and Human Comparison The Information-Processing ApproachComputer and Human Comparison
3Mechanisms of Processing The Information-Processing ApproachMechanisms of ProcessingEncodingAutomaticityStrategy ConstructionMechanism by which information gets into memoryAbility to process information with little or no effortDiscovering new procedure for processing informationMetacognitionCognition about cognition, or “knowing about knowing”
4Speed of Processing Information The Information-Processing ApproachSpeed of Processing InformationAssessed using reaction time tasks.Changes in speed processing:Improves dramatically through childhood and adolescence.Changes due to both myelination and experience.Decline begins in middle adulthood; continues into late adulthood.
5Does Processing Speed Matter? Linked with competence in thinking.Efficient strategies can compensate for slower reaction times and speed (mental retardation).Processing linked to accumulated knowledge and abilities to perform.
6Infancy to Adulthood _________________________________________________ AttentionInfancy to AdulthoodNewborns can detect contours and fixate.4-month-olds have selective attention.Joint attention begins in 7-8 month olds.Control over selective attention shows:Preschooler attends to external salient stimuli.Child of 6 to 7 attentive to relevant information.Ability to shift attention increases with age; allows for more complex task involvement._________________________________________________Less adept at selective attention.Older adults (50-80) performed worse in divided attentionconditions than younger groups.
7Constructing Memories MemoryConstructing MemoriesSchema Theory:People construct and reconstruct memories; mold to fit information already existing in mind.Schemas: mental frameworks that organize concepts and information; affects encoding and retrievalFalse Memories:New information such as questions or suggestions can alter memoriesConcerns about-Implanting false memories in eyewitnesses.Accuracy of eyewitness testimonies at trials.Children as eyewitnesses:Age differences in susceptibility.Interviewing techniques can cause distortions.
8Infancy Considerable improvement after infancy. Implicit memory: Memory without conscious recollection; skills and routine done automatically.Explicit memory:Conscious memory of facts and experiences; doesn’t appear until after 6 months.Infantile Amnesia:Adults recall little or none of first three years.Due to immaturity of prefrontal lobes in brain.Considerable improvement after infancy.
10Working Memory and Processing Speed Working memory performance peaked at 45 years of age; declined at 57 years of age.Working memory linked to:Reading and math achievementProcessing speedYounger adults have better episodic memory than older adults.Older adults remember older events better than more recent events; take longer to retrieve semantic information.Accuracy fades with the aging of a memory.
11Memory for Spanish as a Function of Age Since Spanish Was Learned
12Source Memory Source Memory: Ability to remember where something was learned.Contexts (Physical/Emotional Setting and Identity of Speaker)Failures increase with age in adult years; relevancy of information affects ability.Prospective Memory:Remembering to do something in the future.Age-related declines depend on task.Time-based tasks decline more.Event-based tasks show less decline.
13Influences on the Memory of Older Adults Psychological FactorsHealthBeliefs, Expectations, and FeelingsEducationTraining and mnemonics improve memory-Method of loci: storing mental imagesChunking: put into manageable units
14Memory, Age, and Time of Day Tested (A.M. or P.M.)
15Cognitive Neuroscience and Aging ThinkingCognitive Neuroscience and AgingBrain changes influence cognitive functioning:Neural circuitsIncreased use of both hemispheres in processingFunctioning of hippocampusLarger neural patterns for retrieval with aging
16What Is Thinking? Manipulating and transforming information in memory. Reason, reflect, evaluate ideas, solve problems, make decisionsConcepts-Categories that group things together.Perceptual categorization: as young as 7 mos.Categorization increases in second year; infants differentiate more.
17Critical Thinking Few schools teach critical thinking to students: Grasping deeper meaning of ideasInvolves:Ask what, how, and whyExamine facts and determine evidenceRecognize one or more explanations existCompare various answers, select the bestEvaluate before accepting as truthSpeculate beyond what is knownFew schools teach critical thinking to students:Students recite, define, describe, state, listStudents not asked to analyze, create, rethinkEncourage by:Presenting controversial topics for discussionMotivate students to delve deeper into issuesTeachers should refrain from giving own views
18Strategies for Critical Thinking Children teach childrenReciprocal teaching-Small-group discussionsOnline computer consultationAdults as role modelsCreate culture of learning, negotiating, sharing, and producing (active, not passive)
19Scientific Thinking Aimed at identifying causal relationships Children:emphasize causal mechanisms .more influenced by happenstance than by overall pattern.Cling to old theories regardless of evidence.Have difficulty designing experiments.Problem solving and children:Teach strategies and rules to solve problems-Teacher is model, motivate children.Use effective strategy instruction.Encourage alternative strategies and approaches.Analogical problem solving:Occurs as early as age 1.
20Thinking in Adolescence Critical ThinkingIf fundamental skills not developed during childhood, critical-thinking skills unlikely to mature in adolescence.Decision MakingOlder adolescents appear as more competent decision makers than younger adolescents.Ability does not guarantee every day usage.
21Thinking in Adulthood Practical problem solving and expertise improve: Expertise — extensive, highly organized knowledge and understanding of particular domainUse It or Lose It — practice helps cognitive skillsCognitive Training — can help some if skills are being lostCognitive improvement tied to physical fitness and vitality
22The Child’s Theory of Mind MetacognitionThe Child’s Theory of MindAges 2 to 3 — begin to understandPerceptionsDesiresEmotionsAge 5 — realization of false beliefsMiddle and late childhood — mind seen as active constructor of knowledgePreschoolers haveInflated opinion of memoriesLittle appreciation for importance of memory cuesUnderstanding of memory abilities and skill in evaluating performance on memory tasks improves considerably by years of age
23Metacognition in Adolescence and Adulthood Adolescents more likely than children to effectively manage and monitor thinkingMiddle age adults have accumulated a great deal of metacognitive knowledgeOlder adults tend to overestimate memory problems they experience on daily basis