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Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 8 Chapter 8 Memory and Information Processing.

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Presentation on theme: "Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 8 Chapter 8 Memory and Information Processing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 8 Chapter 8 Memory and Information Processing

2 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 8 Memory & Information Processing Information Processing Approach –Reflects the “Cognitive Revolution” –Used computer as model Hardware is the computer itself In humans it is the brain Software: programs- e.g., word processing In humans: how information is registered, interpreted, stored, retrieved and analyzed

3 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 8 Memory Systems Sensory register: fleeting –With attention, encoding occurs Storage –Short-term memory - limited to 6 items –Working memory - active STM –Long-term memory – relatively permanent Retrieval –Recognition; Recall; Cued Recall

4 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 8 Figure 8.1

5 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 8 Implicit and Explicit Memory Implicit memory –Unintentional, automatic –Information from everyday experiences –Does not change over lifespan Explicit memory –Deliberate, effortful –Increases from infancy to adulthood

6 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 8 Problem Solving Using the information processing system to reach a goal (solve a problem) Executive control processes –Selection from storage –Planning, monitoring, interpreting, etc. –Parallel processing Rather than sequential tasks

7 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 8 Problem Solving 2 Possible difficulties for young children –Not paying attention to relevant aspects –Unable to hold info in working memory –Lack strategies for: Transfer from STM to LTM Retrieval from LTM –Not enough knowledge to understand

8 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 8 The Infant Imitation –Of facial expressions by 6 weeks –Deferred imitation by 6 months Habituation – present at birth Operant conditioning –Ribbon & mobile task –Cued recall: kick when ribbon attached

9 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 8

10 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 8 Four Hypotheses Dramatic improvements in learning, memory and problem solving 4 major hypotheses as to why 1) Changes in basic capacities? Not storage or senses Changes in speed allow parallel processing Automaticity frees working memory space

11 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 8 Four Hypotheses (continued) 2) Do memory strategies change? –Rehearsal by age 7 –Organization by age 10 –Elaboration later –Retrieval strategies External cues needed when younger

12 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 8 Four Hypotheses (continued) 3) Changes in knowledge about memory? Metamemory: knowledge of memory –Present in young children –Awareness of memory processes is beneficial even to young children –Gets better with age –Experience is important

13 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 8 Four Hypotheses (continued) 4) Changes in world knowledge? –Yes. Knowledge base clearly affects learning and memory –Domain familiarity and expertise –E.g., Chi (1978) study of Chess

14 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 8 Autobiographical Memories Infantile Amnesia before age –Lack of language –Fuzzy trace theory Scripts: Typical sequence of actions –Affect memory Eyewitness Memory –Improves with age; younger suggestible –Accuracy better with open questions

15 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 8 Changes in Problem Solving Improves with age in childhood New cognitive structures (Piaget) Rule Assessment (Siegler) More efficient strategies Natural selection –Most adaptive strategy survives

16 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 8 Adolescence New strategies emerge (elaboration) Better use of strategies Basic capacities increase (e.g., speed) Knowledge base increases Metacognition improves

17 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 8 Adulthood – Developing Expertise Domain specific knowledge base increases Strategy use –More organized –More elaborative techniques –Also domain specific Automaticity of more information Autobiographical: memories from age is higher than from other points in life

18 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 8 Memory and Aging Older adults learn more slowly Remember less learned information –Declines by age 70 –Timed tasks, unfamiliar tasks –Recall vs. recognition –Explicit memory tasks more trouble –Cognitively demanding tasks

19 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 8 Explaining Declines Negative beliefs affect memory skills Strategy use not spontaneous Attention becomes more effortful (motivation) Processing speed decreases Sensory, health, and lifestyle changes Cohort differences (age and IQ) *Declines NOT universal

20 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 8 Fig 8.9

21 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 8 Problem Solving Unfamiliar tasks more difficult Meaninglessness a problem Contextual view –Evaluate nature of the task Is speed required Unfamiliar, unexercised skills –Consider individual differences Everyday functioning maintained


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