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Is “the Love of Money” the Root of All Evil? Or Different Strokes for Different Folks: Lessons in 12 Countries Thomas Li-Ping Tang The International Conference.

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Presentation on theme: "Is “the Love of Money” the Root of All Evil? Or Different Strokes for Different Folks: Lessons in 12 Countries Thomas Li-Ping Tang The International Conference."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Is “the Love of Money” the Root of All Evil? Or Different Strokes for Different Folks: Lessons in 12 Countries Thomas Li-Ping Tang The International Conference on Business Ethics in the Knowledge Economy, Hong Kong April 3, 2002 (Revised 9/16/2002)

3 Co-Authors Adebowale Akande, Abdulgawi Salim Alzubaidi, Mark G. Borg, Bor-Shiuan Cheng, Randy K. Chiu, Chin-Kang Jen, Ali Mahdi Kazem, Vivien Kim Geok Lim, Eva Malovics, Johnsto E. Osagie, Raja Pholsward, Elisaveta Sardzoska, Allen F. Stembridge, Toto Sutarso, Theresa Li-Na Tang, Thompson Sian Hin Teo, and Peter Vlerick

4 Now, Please Pay Attention to my Outline: *The Meaning of Money *The Love of Money *A Model of Unethical Behavior *Methods *Results: the Whole Sample, Compare 12 Countries Simultaneously *Recommendations

5 The Color of Money Color Size Shape Cross-Cultural Differences: History, Culture, People (Citizen, President, King, Queen), Architecture, National Pride, World View, Euro- 305M 12

6 The Meaning of Money Father Joseph P. Breen of St. Edward in Nashville, TN Celebrated 40 Years Priesthood on 2/28/2002. (Story by Fr. Wiatt A. Funk.) Turbulence, In God we.. Priests: Pray, Ask

7 The Meaning of Money $20 vs. $1 in a Money Bag Shall we create a pay-for- performance program for priests? The Government has no money until you pay... The Terrorists

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11 The Meaning of Money Money is the instrument of commerce and the measure of value (Smith, 1776/1937). The meaning of money is “in the eye of the beholder” (McClelland, 1967, p. 10).

12 Money is the Measure of Value Who has more value? 1. An Economist Eugen Bohm Bawerk 2. A Psychologist Sigmund Freud 3. An Artist Moritz M. Daffinger

13 In Austria Austrian Schillings (ATS) US$1 = ATS (1/1/2002) An Economist ATS 100 A Psychologist ATS 50 An Artist ATS 20 The Value is on the Face of ATS!? Who has the most money?

14 In the US 1 Dollar Bill:5 Dollar Bill: WashingtonLincoln 10 Dollar:20 Dollar: HamiltonJackson 50 Dollar:100 Dollar GrantFranklin 2 Dollar:3 Dollar: JeffersonClinton White House (For Sale)

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18 The Meaning of Money: Theory Money is a motivator (Gupta & Shaw, 1998; Lawler, 1981; Locke, Feren, McCaleb, Shaw, & Danny, 1980: 381). Money is a hygiene factor (Herzberg, Mausner & Snyderman, 1959; Kohn, 1998; Pfeffer, 1998). People’s attitudes toward money can be perceived as their “frame of reference” in which they examine their everyday lives (Tang, 1992).

19 Managers *Attract, Retain, and Motivate employees *Achieve Company Goals (Chiu, Luk, & Tang, 1998; Milkovich & Newman, 2002; Tang, Kim, & Tang, 2000; Tang, Luk, & Chiu, 2000).

20 Research: Performance Improvement 4 Methods: 1. Participation 2. Job Design 3. Goal Setting 4. Contingent Payment

21 The Meaning of Money- Motivator Performance Improvement Participation: 0% Job Design: 9% Goal Setting: 16% Contingent Payment: 30%. Movements vs. Intrinsic Motivation. What gets measured gets done (Inc., 1998, June)

22 The Meaning of Money-Hygiene Money is a Hygiene factor (Herzberg, Mausner & Snyderman, 1959). 0, 0 point escalates Salary has more potency as a job dissatisfier than as a job satisfier (82). In the lows salary is found almost three times as often in the long-range as in the short-range sequences (82).

23 The Meaning of Money-Hygiene Cameron & Pierce (1994). Review of Educational Research. Kohn (1993, September/October). Harvard Business Review. Kohn (1998, March/April). Compensation and Benefits Review. Pearce (1987). New perspectives on compensation. Pfeffer (1998, May/June). Six dangerous myths about pay. Harvard Business Review.

24 The Meaning of Money Money always represents or signifies something other than itself (Crump, 1981). One is not interested in money, but in what money will buy (Crump, 1981).

25 Time is Money Time $

26 Time is Money My account is worth every penny he charges because of the time he saves me. This year, for example, he probably saved me five to ten years in prison.

27 The ABCs of Money Attitudes Affective: Do you “love or hate” money? Behavioral: What do you “do” with your money? Cognitive: What does money “mean” to you?

28 Measures of Money Attitudes-1 Burgoyne (1990). Money in marriage. Janda (1998). Love & Sex Tests. Holbrook, MA: Adams Media Corp. MES

29 Measures of Money Attitudes-2 Bailey & Gustafson (1986, 1991). Money beliefs and behaviour scale. Handbook of Behavioral Economics. Bailey & Lown (1993). Journal of Consumer Studies and Home Economics. Bailey, Johnson, Adams, Lawson, Williams, & Lown (1994). Consumer Interests Annual. Doyle (1992). American Behavioral Scientist. Fank (1994). Money handling inventory, PAID.

30 Measures of Money Attitudes-3 Furnham (1984). Many sides of the coin: PAID. Furnham & Argyle (1998). The psychology of money. Goldberg & Lewis (1979). Money madness: The psychology of saving, spending, loving, and hating money. Gresham & Footenot (1989). The Money Attitude Scale. Advances in marketing. Hanley & Wihelm (1992). Money Beliefs and Behaviour Scale. JEP.

31 Measures of Money Attitudes-4 Haraoka (1990). Money & value orientation, PJSSP. Lim & Teo (1997). Sex, money and financial hardship, JEP Luna-Arocas, Quintanilla, & Diaz (1995). EAD-6, IAREP. Luna-Arocas (1998). Dinero, Trabajo y Consumo. PROMOLIBRO Lynn (1991). The secret of the miracle economy.

32 Measures of Money Attitudes-5 McClure (1984). Money attitudes and overall pathology, PAQJHB. Mitchell & Mickel (1999)**. The meaning of money: Money Importance Scale, AMR. Opsahl & Dunnette (1966). The role of financial compensation in industrial motivation, PB

33 Measures of Money Attitudes-6 Quintanilla (1997). Psicologia Economica. McGraw Hill. Richins & Rudmin (1994). Materialism, JEP. Rubenstein (1981). Money & self-esteem, relationships, secrecy, envy, satisfaction, PT. Tang (1992). The Money Ethic Scale, JOB. Tang (1995, PAID; 1999, PPM; in press, PR; Tang et al., 2002), 5 Versions

34 Measures of Money Attitudes-7 Thierry (2000). T he meaning of pay, in Erez & Thierry (Eds.) Work motivation. Wernimont & Fitzpatrick (1972). The meaning of money, JAP. Yamauchi & Templer (1982). Money attitude scale, JPA. Zelizer (1989). The social meaning of money: Special monies, AJS. Zuckerman (1983). Sensation seeking.

35 Mitchell & Mickel (1999) The well-developed measures are those that have been developed more carefully and used more systematically. There are three of these: (1) the money ethics scale (Tang, 1992, 1993, 1995), (2) the money belief and behavior scale (Furnham, 1984; Furnham, Kirkcaldy, & Lynn, 1994), and (3) the money importance scale (Mitchell, Dakin, Mickel, & Gray, 1998) (AMR: 571).

36 Why Do We Study Money Attitude? The Importance of Money (Mitchell & Mickel, 1999) The Meaning of Money (Individual Difference) Money  Materialism Other Attitudes--Pay Satisfaction

37 Why Do We Study Money Attitude? Pay Dissatisfaction has numerous undesirable consequences (Heneman & Judge, 2000) Commitment, Turnover, Counter- Productive Behavior, and Unethical Behavior (Cohen-Charash & Spector, 2001; Hom & Griffeth, 1995; Tang, Kim, & Tang, 2000)

38 The Money Ethic Scale 1. Measures the Meaning of Money 2. Follows the ABC Model 3. Has Multi-Dimensional Constructs (5 versions) 4. Is Well Developed and Systematically Used (17 papers) 5. Reflects Individual Differences

39 The Money Ethic Scale Has been used in many samples, in many countries, and in many languages (published articles): Chinese, English, French, Italian, Spanish, Russian, etc.

40 Research Question: Does money (income) have a direct and/or indirect impact on unethical behavior? Does money attitude (the love of money, the MES) have a direct and/or indirect impact on unethical behavior?

41 MES in This Study 1. Money is a Motivator 2. Money is a sign of my Success 3. Money is Important 4. I want to be Rich 58 items, EFA—US Sample, 14 factors, Select 4 factors (17 items), EFA, CFA--Whole Sample, 12 Countries

42 The Love of Money 1. Motivator 2. Success 3. Important 4. Rich

43 Motivator No other incentive or motivational technique comes even close to money (Locke, Feren, McCaleb, Shaw, & Danny, 1980: 381). Money is a motivator (Gupta & Shaw, 1998; Lawler, 1981). Ex. I am motivated to work hard for money. Money is a motivator.

44 Success In America, money is how we keep score (Rubenstein, 1981). Some people are obsessed with “money as a sign of success” (Furnham & Argyle, 1998: 148) Ex. Money represents my achievement. Money is a symbol of my success.

45 Importance The one consistent thread in this body of work is “the emphasis on its importance” (Mitchell & Mickel, 1999: 569) Ex. Money is important. Money is an important factor in the lives of all of us.

46 Rich Would you like to be Rich or Poor? Most people: Rich Being Rich will make you feel Good, Happy, Powerful, Beautiful, Healthy, etc. Many CEOs are tested G-r-e-e-d positive (Crystal, 1990, Fortune). Ex. Having a lot of money (being rich) is good. I want to be rich.

47 Other Variables Income Pay Satisfaction Organizational Commitment Unethical Behavior Ethical Corporate Culture Sex, Job Changes

48 Pay Satisfaction 18-Item Pay Satisfaction Questionnaire: Pay Level Benefits Raises Pay Administration Heneman & Schwab (1985)

49 Organizational Commitment 15-Item Organizational Commitment Questionnaire. Two Indicators: Commitment, Not to Leave (- items) Mowday, Steers, and Porter (1979)

50 Ethical Culture 5-Item Corporate Ethical Culture Two Indicators: Ethical Policy (3 items), Act Ethically (2 items) (Hunt, Wood, & Chonko (1989).

51 Unethical Behavior 15-Scenario Unethical Behavior Tendency Abuse Position (theft, 5 items) + Ex. Take merchandise and/or cash. Abuse Power (corruption, 5 items) Ex. Accept money, gifts, and kickback from others. Abuse Resources (office supply, 3 items) Ex. Waste company time. Use office supplies. Take No Action for Unethical Behavior (look the other way, 2 items) Ex. Take no action for shoplifting/stealing cash/merchandise.

52 In This Study Motivator, Success, Importance, & Rich  “The Love of Money” Abuse Position, Power, Resources, & Take No Action  “Evil”

53 In This Study Is “money” the root of evil? Is “the love of money” the root of evil? The love of money is the root of all evils (Bible: Timothy, 6:10).

54 Cross-Cultural Study Australia*, Austria, Belgium, Brazil*, Bulgaria*, Canada, Chile, China, Congo (Zaire), Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Ireland, Italy*, Macau, Macedonia, Malaysia, Malta, Mexico*, Nigeria*, Oman, Panama (?), Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal*, Puerto Rico, Romania*, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Slovenia*, South Korea, South Africa, Spain*, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, the UK, the USA, and Venezuela.

55 Need Your Help To expand this project: Need People in different parts of the world If you or your colleagues in your country or other countries are interested, please let me know. Thank YOU.

56 A Model of Unethical Behavior Model Z Income Money Ethic Culture Commitment Unethical Behavior Pay Satisfaction Jobs Sex

57 Income  Money Ethic Inverted U: +, 0, -- Unsatisfied needs are important, satisfied needs are not (Alderfer, 1971; Maslow, 1970) Financial Hardship  Obsessed with Money (Dittmar, Tang, & Tillery, 2001; Lim & Teo, 1997; Lynn, 1991; Tang et al., 2001) (+ path)

58 Income  Money Ethic Higher Incomes  Lower Marginal Utility of Money (Brandstatter & Brandstatter, 1996) (-- path) Fairly Paid Income  MES: Non- significant (Tang, Luna-Arocas et al, 2001) Compare Income with (1) GDP per Capita or (2) Bill Gates (52.8B)

59 Income  Money Ethic Among nations: As nations get richer, increases in wealth are associated with diminishing increases in well-being (Ahuvia & Friedman, 1998; Schyns, 1998) Objective Wealth vs. Subjective Appraisals (Ahuvia & Friedman, 1998)

60 Objective Money (Income) Within nations: Increased income is associated with well-being for the poor; once the poverty threshold is crossed, increased income matters little for happiness (Czikszentmihali, 1999;Diener, 2000; Myers 2000; Oishi, Diener, Lucas, & Such, 1999; Oropesa, 1995, Richins & Rudmin, 1994; Schyns, 2000; Tatzel, 2002)

61 Objective Money (Income) If we are so rich, why aren’t we happy? Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1999). American Psychologist, 54,

62 Subjective Money (Compare) Subjective well-being increases as income increases from below average to above average within one’s home community (Hagerty, 2000)

63 East Asia The major global market for luxury goods (Wong & Ahuvia, 1998) Thailand: very Materialistic, regarding possessions as a measure of Success, valuing possessions for their public visibility (face) over private, personal meaning (Webster & Batty, 1997; Wong & Ahuvia, 1998).

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65 Hong Kong Cash Mentality (Chiu, Luk, & Tang, 2001) The Most Popular Car in Hong Kong…Public Visibility--Face

66 MES  Pay Satisfaction Equity Theory (Adams, 1965) Discrepancy Model (Lawler, 1971) Expectation vs. Reality “The Love of Money” as the Frame of Reference, i.e., expectation, standards High MES  High Pay Dissatisfaction

67 Pay Satisfaction  Commitment Job Satisfaction  Commitment (Williams & Hazer, 1986, SEM) There is reciprocal and synchronous causality between commitment and satisfaction, with satisfaction influencing commitment more than vice versa (Home & Griffeth, 1995: 98).

68 Pay Satisfaction  Commitment Perceived unfair procedural and distributive justice  negative attitudes toward the organization (e.g., lower trust and commitment) (Cohen-Charash & Spector, 2001: 288)

69 Commitment  Unethical Behavior From a procedural justice perspective, perceived injustice will lead to negative perceptions of the organization and, hence to counterproductive behaviors that will hurt the organization (Cohen- Charash & Spector, 2001: 287).

70 Business Ethics Taxonomy and Concepts (Forsyth, 1980; Michalos, 1995) Culture (Hofstede, 2001; Trompenaars, 1994) Social Institutions (Parsons, 1990) Personal Values (England, 1975) Cross-cultural (Wines & Napier, 1992)

71 Ethical Culture  Commitment Top-level Manager can reduce unethical behavior (Finn, Chonko, & Hunt, 1988) Attraction-Selection-Attrition (Chatman, 1989; Douglas & Schwartz, 1999; Ponemon & Glazer, 1990; Tang & Frost, 1999) Differences in ethical culture across firms and across offices within the same firm (Jeffrey & Weatherholt, 1996)

72 Ethical Culture  Commitment Ethical Culture  Ethical Behavior (Hunt & Vitell, 1986; Trevino, 1986) *“Directly” Ethical Culture  Individual Values (i.e., idealism)  Ethical Judgments (Douglas, Davison, & Schwartz, 2001) *“Indirectly” Ethical Culture  Commitment  Unethical Behavior * Indirectly

73 Sex  MES Men prefer equity, women prefer equality (Tang, 1996; Tang, Furnham, & Davis, 2000) Men consider money more important than women (Lawler, 1971) Women are more subjectively satisfied with their pay than men, the contented female worker (Crosby, 1982; Major & Konar, 1984; Sauser & York, 1978; Smith, Kendall, & Hulin, 1969)

74 Job Changes  Unethical Behavior Reason for Voluntary Turnover: higher wages/career opportunities (Campion, 1991) Leavers have lower pay satisfaction and receive 20% pay increase on their new jobs The number of job changes is a predictor of management professors’ pay (Gomez-Mejia & Balkin, 1992) Self-Interest vs. Organization

75 Sample 2,338 Full-Time White-Collar Employees from 12 Countries: The US, Belgium, Hong Kong, Hungary, Macedonia, Malta, Oman, Philippines, Singapore, South Africa, Taiwan, and Thailand. HK is a part of China. We use the term “country” or “culture” for each sample.

76 Additional Data US: income = $34,661, *GDP per Capita = $31,500, *ratio = 1.10 *CPI 2001 (1) Rank = 16, (2) Score = 7.6 Hi income: HK (1.89); Thailand (3.41), Macedonia (2.07) Lo income: Hungary Hi Corruption CPI: Score 9

77 Data Analysis Convert income to Z Income 1. Perform CFA for all measures The Whole Sample Cross-Cultural Equivalence: (1) Factor Structure, (2) Factor Loadings 2. Test the SEM Model: The Whole Sample 3. Compare the Model Across 12 Countries

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79 A Model of Unethical Behavior Whole Z Income Money Ethic Culture Commitment Unethical Behavior Pay Satisfaction Jobs Sex.17* -.13*.55* -.28*.68*.14* *

80 Main Results The Money Ethic is directly and indirectly related to Unethical Behavior, whereas Income is not. The “Love of Money” is the root of all Evil. Money is not the root of all evil.

81 A Model of Unethical Behavior The US Z Income Money Ethic Culture Commitment Unethical Behavior Pay Satisfaction Jobs Sex.88*.03.60* -.26*.62*

82 A Model of Unethical Behavior Belgium Z Income Money Ethic Culture Commitment Unethical Behavior Pay Satisfaction Jobs Sex.87*.09.22* -.22*.81*

83 A Model of Unethical Behavior Hong Kong Z Income Money Ethic Culture Commitment Unethical Behavior Pay Satisfaction Jobs Sex.50* -.30*.68* * -.28*

84 A Model of Unethical Behavior Hungary Z Income Money Ethic Culture Commitment Unethical Behavior Pay Satisfaction Jobs Sex.45*.09.56* -.23*.64* *.66* -.12

85 A Model of Unethical Behavior Macedonia Z Income Money Ethic Culture Commitment Unethical Behavior Pay Satisfaction Jobs Sex -.26*.00.35*

86 A Model of Unethical Behavior Malta Z Income Money Ethic Culture Commitment Unethical Behavior Pay Satisfaction Jobs Sex *.70* -.34* -.38*

87 A Model of Unethical Behavior Oman Z Income Money Ethic Culture Commitment Unethical Behavior Pay Satisfaction Jobs Sex.96* -.35*.50* * -.22* *

88 A Model of Unethical Behavior Philippines Z Income Money Ethic Culture Commitment Unethical Behavior Pay Satisfaction Jobs Sex * -.33*

89 A Model of Unethical Behavior Singapore Z Income Money Ethic Culture Commitment Unethical Behavior Pay Satisfaction Jobs Sex.22* -.21*.56* -.19*.58.29*

90 A Model of Unethical Behavior South Africa Z Income Money Ethic Culture Commitment Unethical Behavior Pay Satisfaction Jobs Sex.25*.55* * * -.05

91 A Model of Unethical Behavior Taiwan Z Income Money Ethic Culture Commitment Unethical Behavior Pay Satisfaction Jobs Sex.14* * -.22*.51*

92 A Model of Unethical Behavior Thailand Z Income Money Ethic Culture Commitment Unethical Behavior Pay Satisfaction Jobs Sex -.20*.60* *.15.13

93 Summary: 12 Countries 12 Countries Z Income Money Ethic Culture Commitment Unethical Behavior Pay Satisfaction Jobs Sex +:5; (-:2) -: 5; (+: 1) : 1, 0: 8 -: 3 +:1; -:1 1

94 A Simplified Model 12 Countries Money Ethic Commitment Unethical Behavior Pay Satisfaction -.13*.61* -.24*

95 Discussion Employee theft is a $200 million-dollar a year problem in the US Some managers condone theft by looking the other way Treat that as “an invisible wage structure” to compensate for their lower than average wages

96 Discussion Financial loss is attributed to Employee Theft--38.4% Shoplifting—35.6% Administrative Error –19.4% Vender Theft—6.4%

97 Discussion Average Loss Shoplifting—$ per incident Employee Theft–$ Armed Robbery–$2,410 Culture of corruption  Business failures Discourage and Prevent

98 How Do Managers Discourage and Prevent Unethical Behavior? Create Pay Fairness Internal Equity (Vertical Pay Differential) External Competitiveness (Market) and Individual Equity (Merit, Seniority)

99 Discourage and Prevent Procedural Justice (rules of the game, How the decision was made, the means) Distributive Justice (results of the game, What was decided, the ends)

100 Discourage and Prevent Set Role Models Create Ethical Corporate Culture Use Reward and Punishment Establish Ethics Hot Line Develop Profiles of Dishonest Employees Select Good Employees HRM Install Surveillance Systems Provide Training to Employees

101 Organizational Culture Top management: Decoration or Dedication? One company has built their organization around these four values*: –Communication, Respect, Integrity, Excellence Can you name this company? Culture can only be strong when the commitment to norms and values is strong. *Taken from Year 2000 Annual Report

102 CEOs’ Pay Corporate Corruptions Enron Chairman Kenneth Lay and his wife own over 30 million dollars worth of real estates and stocks Employees lost their jobs and 1 billion deferred compensation and pension plan

103 CEOs’ Pay Michael Eisner, CEO of Walt Disney made US$575,592,000 in 1998 The average worker made $30,000 in 1998 Pay Differential = 19,320 to 1

104 Money Profiles Evil, Budget, Charity, Importance, Motivator, Success, Cluster Analysis Conscientious Steward Frugal Budgeter Money Worshiper Careless Handler

105 Good Money Profiles Conscientious Steward (H-C; L- IMS) H satisfaction, L jobs, all Unethical Behavior Frugal Budgeter (H-B; L-E) H Satisfaction Evil, Budget, Charity, Importance, Motivator, Success

106 Bad Money Profiles Money Worshiper (H-EIMS)- Abuse Power, Take No Action Careless Handler (L-BC) Abuse Position, Resources Evil, Budget, Charity, Importance, Motivator, Success

107 Conclusion The love of money is the root of evil. (Tim, 6:10)

108 Additional Thoughts It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God. Judas, who betrayed Jesus for a sum of money (30 pieces of silver), was the treasurer of the disciples. John, 12: 6; 13: 29 For when he dieth he shall carry nothing away: his glory shall not descent after him. Psa, 49: 17 Beloved, follow not that which is evil, but that which is good. He that doeth good is of God: but he that doeth evil hath not seen God. John, 11

109 Professional Wrestlers as Ushers: Increased Collection Plate Donations by 72%

110 Thank You Danke Dankeshen Grazie Merci Muchas Gracias


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