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Government Decision-Making, Size and Links with Cultural Values Mark F. Peterson Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy Peter B. Smith University of Sussex.

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Presentation on theme: "Government Decision-Making, Size and Links with Cultural Values Mark F. Peterson Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy Peter B. Smith University of Sussex."— Presentation transcript:

1 Government Decision-Making, Size and Links with Cultural Values Mark F. Peterson Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy Peter B. Smith University of Sussex Presentation for the Sponsored by the Public Expenditure and Administrative Civil Service Reform Thematic Groups, World Bank, Washington, D.C., October 23, 2002.

2 Comparative Culture Projects Hofstede – Collective Programming Hofstede – Collective Programming Trompenaars – Riding the Waves Trompenaars – Riding the Waves Inglehart – World Values Survey Inglehart – World Values Survey Schwartz – Values Survey Schwartz – Values Survey GLOBE GLOBE

3 EIGHT ORGANIZATIONAL EVENTS Appointing a New Subordinate Appointing a New Subordinate A Subordinate who is Doing Good Work A Subordinate who is Doing Good Work A Subordinate who is Doing Poor Work A Subordinate who is Doing Poor Work Equipment or Machinery Needs Replacement Equipment or Machinery Needs Replacement Another Department Does Not Provide Resources/Support Another Department Does Not Provide Resources/Support Differing Opinions within the Department Differing Opinions within the Department You see the need to Introduce New Work Procedures You see the need to Introduce New Work Procedures The Time Comes to Evaluate New Work Procedures The Time Comes to Evaluate New Work Procedures

4 SOURCES OF GUIDANCE Formal Rules and Procedures Formal Rules and Procedures Unwritten Rules: ‘How we do things around here’ Unwritten Rules: ‘How we do things around here’ My Subordinates My Subordinates Specialists outside my Department Specialists outside my Department Other People at My Level Other People at My Level My Superior My Superior Opinions Based upon My Own Experience and Training Opinions Based upon My Own Experience and Training Beliefs that are widely accepted in my country about what is right Beliefs that are widely accepted in my country about what is right

5 WHERE? Austria, Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, UK, Ukraine Austria, Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, UK, Ukraine Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Jamaica, Mexico, USA Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Jamaica, Mexico, USA Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Zimbabwe Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Zimbabwe Iran, Israel, Lebanon, Pakistan, India, Turkey Iran, Israel, Lebanon, Pakistan, India, Turkey China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Phillipines, Singapore, Thailand China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Phillipines, Singapore, Thailand Australia, New Zealand Australia, New Zealand

6 Implications for Government Size? The nature of efficient government may be culturally dependent: Change the sources used, or use preferred sources more efficiently? The nature of efficient government may be culturally dependent: Change the sources used, or use preferred sources more efficiently? Extensive staff bureaucrats to write and/or enforce regulations where rules are used heavily? Extensive staff bureaucrats to write and/or enforce regulations where rules are used heavily? Ideological monitors where societal norms are used heavily? Ideological monitors where societal norms are used heavily? Extensive staff experts to advise about projects where experts are used heavily? Extensive staff experts to advise about projects where experts are used heavily? Large line organizations where conferring with subordinates or colleagues is used heavily? Large line organizations where conferring with subordinates or colleagues is used heavily?

7 Other Implications for Implementing World Bank Programs? Send procedures manuals where rules are used Send procedures manuals where rules are used Plan organization culture change programs where informal norms are used Plan organization culture change programs where informal norms are used Provide for supervisor training where supervisors are used Provide for supervisor training where supervisors are used Provide opportunities for discussion where subordinates and colleagues are used Provide opportunities for discussion where subordinates and colleagues are used Carefully coordinate programs with national norms where national norms are used Carefully coordinate programs with national norms where national norms are used

8 Does the Nature of Government Overcome Effects of Culture? (Ranks)U.S.JapanNetherlands Written Procedures Unwritten Rules Superior’s Opinions Outside Staff Informal Managers Formal Managers Formal Subordinates Informal Subordinates Personal Judgment 1 2 1

9 OWN EXPERIENCE & TRAINING

10 WIDESPREAD BELIEFS AS TO WHAT IS RIGHT

11 FORMAL RULES AND PROCEDURES

12 US PROFILE

13 ARGENTINE PROFILE

14 BRAZILIAN PROFILE

15 CZECH PROFILE

16 BELARUS PROFILE

17 HONG KONG PROFILE

18 CHINESE PROFILE

19 TANZANIAN PROFILE

20 UGANDAN PROFILE

21 WORKING TOGETHER: USA AND UK

22 References Smith, P.B., Peterson, M.F. & Schwartz, S. Cultural values, sources of guidance and their relevance to managerial behavior: A 47 nation study. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology, 2002, 33(1), Smith, P.B., Peterson, M.F. & Schwartz, S. Cultural values, sources of guidance and their relevance to managerial behavior: A 47 nation study. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology, 2002, 33(1), Smith, P.B., Peterson, M.F., D’Amorim, M.A., Davila, C., Gamas, E., Malvezzi, S & Saiz, J.L. Leadership in Latin American organizations: An event management perspective. Interamerican Journal of Psychology, 1999, 33 (2), Smith, P.B., Peterson, M.F., D’Amorim, M.A., Davila, C., Gamas, E., Malvezzi, S & Saiz, J.L. Leadership in Latin American organizations: An event management perspective. Interamerican Journal of Psychology, 1999, 33 (2), Peterson, M.F. & Smith, P. B. Meanings, organizations and culture: Using sources of meaning to make sense of organizational events. In Neal Ashkanasy, Celeste Wilderom & Mark F. Peterson (eds.), Handbook of organizational culture and climate. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Press, 2000, pp Peterson, M.F. & Smith, P. B. Meanings, organizations and culture: Using sources of meaning to make sense of organizational events. In Neal Ashkanasy, Celeste Wilderom & Mark F. Peterson (eds.), Handbook of organizational culture and climate. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Press, 2000, pp Peterson, M.F., Elliott, J.R., Bliese, P.D. & Radford, M.H.B. Profile analysis of the sources of meaning reported by U.S. and Japanese local government managers. Research in the Sociology of Organizations. Peter Bamberger, Miriam Erez and Samuel B. Bacharach (eds.). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1996, pp Peterson, M.F., Elliott, J.R., Bliese, P.D. & Radford, M.H.B. Profile analysis of the sources of meaning reported by U.S. and Japanese local government managers. Research in the Sociology of Organizations. Peter Bamberger, Miriam Erez and Samuel B. Bacharach (eds.). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1996, pp


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