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1 Psychology 320: Psychology of Gender and Sex Differences Lecture 3.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Psychology 320: Psychology of Gender and Sex Differences Lecture 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Psychology 320: Psychology of Gender and Sex Differences Lecture 3

2 2 Introduction 1.What is gender? (continued)

3 3 By the end of today’s class, you should be able to: 1. generate examples of intersexuality and gender variance. 2. discuss the causes, symptoms, and therapeutic options for Turner’s syndrome and Androgen Insensitivity syndrome. 3. describe third genders identified in other cultures.

4 4 Examples of intersexuality: What is gender? (continued)

5 5 Results from a missing or damaged X chromosome (XO) in females.  Turner’s Syndrome Individuals with Turner’s syndrome develop female external genitalia, but do not develop functional ovaries. Incidence: 1/2500 – 1/5000 live births.

6 6

7 7 Symptoms: Short stature Webbed neck Lymphedema Shield shaped chest Widely-spaced nipples Low hairline Atypical ears Cubitus valgus Increased weight Reproductive sterility Amenorrhea Poor breast development Horseshoe kidney Visual impairments Cardiovascular malformations Spatial perception deficits

8 8 Webbed neck Shield-shaped chest Widespread nipples Atypical ears An Infant with Turner’s Syndrome

9 9 A Child with Turner’s Syndrome A = Webbed neck B = Cubitis valgus C = Lymphedema

10 10 An Adult with Turner’s Syndrome

11 11 Therapeutic options: Growth hormone, estrogen replacement therapy.

12 12 Occurs among XY individuals whose cells are insensitive to androgens. Due to the presence of a Y chromosome, androgen- secreting testes develop in the fetus; however, the body does not respond to these androgens.  Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS) As a result, external genitalia appear female. Prevalence: 1/13,000 – 1/65,000

13 13 Symptoms: Amenorrhea Reproductive sterility Undescended testes Shortened vagina Little or no body hair Tend to exceed societal standards of beauty for females.

14 14 Adults with AIS

15 15 Therapeutic options: Masculinizing hormones are ineffective; vaginoplasty may be performed. Most individuals with AIS report satisfaction with a female gender identity.

16 16 Examples of gender variance:

17 17 The “Two-Spirit” of the First Nations

18 18 The “Hijras” of India

19 19 The “Muxe” of Mexico

20 20 The Fa’afafine of Samoa

21 21 Introduction 1.What is gender? (continued)

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