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Gender Issues © Robert J. Atkins, Ph.D..

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Presentation on theme: "Gender Issues © Robert J. Atkins, Ph.D.."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gender Issues © Robert J. Atkins, Ph.D.


3 What is sex vs. gender? Sex = biological
Gender = psychosocial (cultural)

4 What are the sex chromosomes?
Eggs = XX Sperm = XY

5 Prenatal sexual differentiation
In the absence of male hormones, female external genitals will develop

6 Prenatal structure


8 What are the prenatal structures?
Female = Mullerian ducts Male = Wolffian ducts

9 What is the undifferentiated stage?

10 What is early genital development?

11 What is advanced genital development?

12 What is the peno-scrotal raphe?

13 What structures are homologous?
Ovaries = Testicles Clitoris = glands of the penis Scrotum = major lips

14 Do you remember? What is the female and male sex chromosome pattern?
What are the female prenatal structures? What are the male prenatal structures? What structures in the female are homologous to those in the male.

15 What is Transgender? Transgender: Umbrella term
16 or more intersex conditions Transsexuals Listed in the DSM-V as “Gender identity disorder” Transvestites

16 What are intersex conditions?
Various chromosome, hormone, and developmental conditions that are not standard for male and female. At least 16 conditions Includes: Turner Syndrome Klinefelter syndrome Androgen insensitivity syndrome Ovo-testes (formerly called “true Hermaphroditism”)

17 What are chromosome errors?
Turner’s syndrome Klinefelters syndrome

18 What is Turner’s syndrome?
(Sterile female with absent or underdeveloped ovaries) XO Normal external female genitals Lack of menstruation at puberty Female gender identity

19 What is Klinefelters syndrome
What is Klinefelters syndrome? (sterile male with underdeveloped genitals) XXY chromosome pattern Gender identity confusion

20 What are the prenatal hormone errors?
Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) Fetally androgenized females (FAF)

21 What is Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS)?
External genitals of male fetus fail to differentiate Newborn has normal-looking female external genitals Diagnosed when menstruation does not occur

22 What are fetally androgenized females (FAF)?
Masculinized external organs

23 Do you remember? What are the characteristics of Turner’s syndrome?
What are the characteristics of Klinefelters syndrome? What is Androgen Insensitivity syndrome? What is a fetally androgenized female?

24 John Money study of Joan/John
Circumcision accident The effect of prenatal hormones on brain differentiation may be much more influential in gender-identity than was originally assumed.

25 Transvestite VS transsexual
Transvestite cross dresses for sexual arousal Transsexual cross dresses to feel comfortable and congruent

26 What is sex reassignment surgery?
Sex change surgery Transsexuals feel trapped in a body of the “wrong” sex Cross dresses to feel comfortable and congruent More men (M-F) than women (F-M) Ratio is narrowing Most preoperative transsexual persons feel they are heterosexual.

27 M-F transsexual surgery

28 M-F transgender surgery results

29 F-M transgender surgery results
Before After (Artificial testicles)

30 Do you remember? What did we learn from the John Money study?
What is the difference between a transvestite and a transsexual? What sexual orientation do most preoperative transsexual persons feel they have?


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