Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5: Gender Issues"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 5: Gender Issues Bio 27: October 1, 2012Chapter 5: Gender IssuesSTART DESKTOP FOR D. REIMER VIDEO!
2 atypical prenatal differentiation talk about sensitivity heregonadal, genital, chromosomal and hormonal, and then to use that framework, to present the idea of a "Standard-issue male" (testes, penis&scrotum, XY, testosterone) and "Standard-issue female" (ovaries, vulva, XX, estradiol), where "Standard-issue" means "what one generally sees in the population."atypical prenatal differentiation
3 Intersexed individuals Intersexed individuals are classified as:True hermaphrodites: have both ovarian and testicular structures in their bodies; extremely rare!Pseudohermaphrodites: occurs 1 in every 2,000 births; have gonads that match chromosomal sex but ambigulous internal and external genitalia
4 Atypical Prenatal Differentiation Sex chromosome disorders:Turner’s syndrome XO: 1 in every 2500–3000 females; develop typical female external genitals, but internal genitalia and gonads are not fully developed. Women with this syndrome do not develop breasts at puberty or menstruate.Klinefelter’s syndrome XXY: 1 in every 1000 males; develop male external genitalia, but are typically sterile with smaller than normal penises and testes. Usually identify as male but some have gender-identity issues
5 Disorders affecting prenatal hormonal processes Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS): Individuals are chromosomally male, but due to a mutation in their androgen receptors develop as females; have “blind” vaginas and undescended, undeveloped testesDavid Reimer pt 1 & pt 2
6 Disorders affecting prenatal hormonal processes Fetally androgenized females: sometimes a female fetus will produce high levels of androgens as a result of a malfunction of her adrenal glands; these girls are born with masculine-appearing genitalia and may have gender identification issuesfused labia resemble a scrotum
7 Disorders affecting prenatal hormonal processes DHT deficiency: some chromosomal males cannot make the potent androgen DHT due to an enzyme deficiencyDHT plays a big role in development of external male genitalia, so these individuals are born with female external genitaliaAt puberty, high levels of testosterone cause the genitalia to become masculinizedMost make gender identity switch to male
8 Atypical Prenatal Differentiation Caption: Summary of some examples of atypical prenatal sex differentiation.
10 Gender-role expectations Many people find out sex of baby before it is even born and start grooming child for gender rolesFirm gender identity by age 3
11 Margaret Mead’s studies Famous anthropologist published 1963 book on three societies in New Guinea:Mundumgor: both sexes exhibited aggressive and non-nurturing behaviorArapesh: both sexes exhibited gentleness and sensitivityTchambuli: masculine & feminine gender roles the opposite of what we expect here
12 John Money’s studiesMoney studied intersexed children who had been surgically reassigned gender (late 1960s-early 1970s)Found that in most cases children whose chromosomal and assigned sexes did not match developed a gender identity consistent with their assigned sexMargaret Mead: anthropologist who found that in other cultures gender roles not always the same as ours
13 Gender neutrality at birth? The Bradley case: another infant who lost his penis in a similar accident was also raised as a girl. Was tomboyish as a child and bisexual as an adult, but maintained a female gender identity25 children born without penises but otherwise typically male were castrated after birth and raised as girls…14 of these eventually assumed male gender identityGender neutrality at birth is now strongly questioned, and parents of intersexed children or those with damaged genitals are now usually advised to avoid irreversible surgeries until their children are older
15 Transsexualism and Transgenderism Transexualism: gender identity is opposite to biological sexGender dysphoria: the feeling that you are trapped in the body of the wrong sexTransgendered: people whose appearance and/or behavior does not conform to traditional gender rolesSpectrum of transgendered behaviors: cross-dressing, or just having qualities of the opposite sexTransvestite: a person who cross-dresses to achieve sexual arousal
16 Gender Identity vs. Sexual Orientation Before sex reassignment, most transsexuals are attracted to people who match them anatomically, but not in gender identityHowever, this is not always the caseThe transgendered community is more diverse; many transvestite men are heterosexual
17 Options for transsexuals First sex change operations performed by German doctors in the 1920s and 1930s1960s and 1970s: these operations became widely available in the U.S.Initially many more male-to-female gender reassignment surgeries were performed
18 Sex reassignment procedures Individuals seeking sexual reassignment surgery must first meet with a psychologist for screening interviewsThey then are instructed to adopt a lifestyle consistent with their gender identityHormone therapy is then initiated:In men this will induce some breast growth, soften the skin, reduce facial & body hairIn women this will induce facial & body hair growth, deepening of the voice, shrinkage of breasts and cessation of menstruationSurgery is needed to raise the voice of males
19 Sex change surgery Penis inverted to form vagina, for females reconstructed using abdominal or pelvic tissue; nerves are retainedMost people who undergo procedures report satisfaction
20 Transsexual people in the media Chaz Bono, Jenna Talackova; hormone therapy at 14
22 Gender Roles Gender-based stereotypes (North American) MalesIndependent and aggressiveFemalesDependent and submissiveRecent trend away from rigid stereotypesWomen less entrenched than men in rigid gender-role stereotypesEthnic variation in gender rolesDISCUSS ETHNIC VARIATION IN GENDER ROLES
23 Gender Roles Agents of Socialization Parental expectationsPeersSchool teachers and textbooksTelevision and gender-based stereotypesReligious training
24 Homework assignment #3: due at the beginning of class 10/3/12 What people and other influences have influenced your own gender role development? Think about both positive and negative influences that shaped your gender role. What do you feel are the benefits and consequences of being the gender you are? wordsDavid Reimer pt. 1David Reimer pt 2
25 “Gender is a social construct” How strongly do you agree or disagree with this statement? Explain your answer.12345strongly disagreesomewhat disagreeneutralsomewhat agreestrongly agreeWrite your number and WHYThen: how do you know?