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Class 9 Early Byzantium Dr. Ann T. Orlando 18 September 2014.

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1 Class 9 Early Byzantium Dr. Ann T. Orlando 18 September 2014

2 Eastern Roman Emperors Constantine Council of Nicaea Theodosius I, Great (379-395) Council of Constantinople Conflicts with Ambrose Last Emperor of East and West Arcadius (son of Theodosius) and Eudoxia in East (395-408) Conflicts with John Chrysostom Theodosius II (408-450) Son of Arcadius Council of Ephesus Pulcharia and Marcion (450-457) Pulcharia daughter of Theodosius II Council of Chalcedon

3 Pope St. Leo the Great Born in Tuscany; deacon under Pope Celestine Pope 440-461 Fought against Pelagians and Manicheans Deeply influenced by Augustine Concerned for Church discipline, Proper forms for Latin liturgies Papal control over appointment of bishops; conflict with St. Hilary of Arles Managed to convince barbarians not to sack Rome Attila the Hun Genseric the Vandal Most famous for Christological formula, “One person, two natures”

4 Leo’s Tome Letter written to St. Flavian Relies on Scripture and Nicene Creed for arguments against monophysites Distinction of both natures meets in one Person Similar views expressed in Letter XXXI to Empress Pucharia

5 Council of Chalcedon, 451 Called by Pulcharia and Marcian Establishes the Christological formula that Leo suggested Primarily bishops from the East, with a representative from Rome Dioscursus and much of the Alexandrian Church refuse to accept Chalcedon Politically this remained a divisive issue in the East until rise of Islam Theologically it remains a divisive issue to the present day; Coptic Christians

6 The First Five Ecumenical Councils Nicea I, 325, called by Constantine the Great Condemned Arianism Son of one substance with the Father Nicene Creed Constantinople I, 381, Called by Theodosius the Great Affirmed divinity of Holy Spirit Modified Creed; what we have now Ephesus, 431, called by Theodosius II Condemned Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople Jesus was not two separate persons, but one person both human and divine Mary as ‘Theotokos’ Mother of God Chalcedon, 450, called by Empress Pulcharia at request of Pope St. Leo I (the Great) Condemned monophysites: single nature Christ has two natures: human and divine (Leo’s Tome Second Council of Constantinople, 553, Called by Justinian Condemned Theodore of Mosuestia and Origen

7 “Caesaropapism” Society in which head of government is also head of Church Notice that all these early (eastern) councils are called by Emperors Constantine considered a saint in the East, “equal to Apostles” Revived civil Roman law includes canonical law in East Theodosian Code (Theodosius II), 438, takes 312 as the beginning of legal precedents Justinian Code, 534 This will be the Church-State model in Byzantium until 1453 (in Russia until 1917)

8 A Different Development in West: Pope Gelasius Pope 492-496; West being overrun with barbarians Only civil authority with continuity to Roman Empire was Church Eastern Emperor (Anastatius) claims authority in West, but has no military capability to back it up Gelasius’ Letter to Anastatius is a landmark in defining balance of power relation between altar and throne Two authorities in world: consecrated priests and royal power Each has its own sphere of operation and respect Priests have greater responsibility; emperor should obey priests This view was never accepted in East; however became the basis of operation for Middle Ages in West Pope Leo III crowns Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor in 800 Note: Papacy is only real continuing link between East and West from 476 onwards Gelaisus’ Letter will be used by Papacy throughout Middle Ages to justify Papal stance with respect to Western Rulers

9 Eastern Reaction to Barbarian Invasions: Justinian the Great (482-565) Justinian manages to reconquer most of Western Mediterranean from Vandals, Visigoths and Ostrogoths Reworked Roman Law; basis for law in East until Fall of Constantinople, 1453 Rebuilt Ravenna as capital of Western Empire to oppose German, Theodoric Boethius (480-524) Consolation of Philosophy Justinian considered a saint in East His wife, Theodora, is another story; for political reasons she tried to move Empire to support monophysites Proculus’ Secret History

10 Byzantine Empire Some historian begin the ‘Byzantine’ Empire with Justinian Byzantine is a 19 th C term Greek-speaking, Eastern Roman Empire Endure until 1453 Greatest enemy rises in the 7 th C from the Arab deserts: Islam

11 Ecclesial Importance of Hagia Sophia Cathedral Church for most important Eastern Bishop, the Patriarch of Constantinople Original built by Constantine Rebuilt by Justinian after an earthquake in 537 Many important theologians were associated with Hagia Sophia; Greek Fathers and Doctors of the Church St. Gregory Nazianzus (325-389, Feast Day Jan 2) St. John Chrysostom (347-407, Feast Day Sept 13 )

12 Later History of Hagia Sophia Conquered by Turks in 1453, converted to a mosque; mosaics covered over Changed to a museum by Ataturk in 1935, mosaics start to be uncovered Why such importance deal that Benedict XVI might pray there on his journey to Turkey?

13 Statement by Ecumenical Patriarchate in Anticipation of Pope’s Visit to Istanbul (Constantinople) Pope to visit Ecumenical Patriarch and go to Hagia Sophia on Feast of St. Andrew; statement on ecumenical patriarchate website (bold on website, not my emphasis): “In August 2004 Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger, now Pope Benedict XVI, made clear that he regards Turkey as part of the Islamic world, not merely geographically in another continent but intellectually and spiritually a world apart from Europe. He would prefer that Turkey ally itself with nations which share its traditions and past. This would not deny it an opportunity to associate with the European Union in a limited ancillary capacity RETURN OF HAGIA SOPHIA TO THE POSSESSION AND CONTROL OF THE ECUMENICAL PATRIARCH AS MOTHER CHURCH OF CHRISTENDOM - A CONDITION PRECEDENT TO FURTHER CONSIDERATION OF TURKEY'S APPLICATION FOR MEMBERSHIP IN THE EUROPEAN UNION”

14 Assignment Pope Gelasius, Letter to Emperor, /gelasius1.asp /gelasius1.asp

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