2 Constantinople330: the Emperor Constantine moved capital from Rome to Byzantium
3 Constantinople (continued) It was easy to defendit lay at the crossroads of many sea and overland trade routes linking east and west
4 Constantinople (continued) It was surrounded by water on three sides and fortified by miles of walls.A large chain protected the mouth of its harbor.The city had a sewer system, hospitals, homes for the elderly, and orphanages
5 Constantinople (continued) Life in Constantinople was more advanced than in western Europe.The city’s language and culture were Greek, but traders and visitors spoke many languages.Many people lived in poverty.Most people attended chariot races.The emperor gave bread to the unemployed, who did public works in exchange.
6 The Reign of Justinian I Justinian plans to flee during Nika riots, his wife, Theodora, convinces the emperor to stay and fight.He rebuilt the city after the Nika riots.He improved Constantinople by building new bridges, public baths, parks, roads, hospitals and the Hagia Sophia
7 The Reign of Justinian I (cont.) Justinian revised outdated and confusing laws.He created a systematic body of law.Justinian Code becomes the basis for many legal codes in the Western world.
8 The Eastern Orthodox Church The Byzantine Empire was a theocracy. The church and state was combined into one all-powerful body.The emperor was believed to be both the head of the government and the living representative of Jesus Christ
9 The Eastern Orthodox Church (cont.) Most people attended church regularly and received sacraments at every stage of their lives.Monasteries and convents cared for the poor and sick.
10 Church HierarchyEmperorPatriarch of ConstantinoplePatriarchPriest
11 Christianity Catholic Church Orthodox Church Liturgy Saints Leader IconsPriestsCatholic ChurchLatinYesPopeCannot MarryOrthodox ChurchGreekEmperorCan MarryCathedralsCenter/CapitalShaped like cross and pointyRomeSquare with domesConstantinople
12 Conflict Between East and West 730, Emperor Leo III believed people were worshiping icons and ordered them destroyed.Pope Gregory III excommunicated the emperor.
13 Conflict Between East and West (cont.) 800, Pope crowns Charlemagne, Holy Roman emperor. This outraged the Byzantines, who felt they were the rightful rulers of the Roman Empire
14 In 1054 a schism, or formal division, resulted from the pope excommunicating the patriarch of Constantinople and the patriarch excommunicating a Catholic cardinal. - The Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church become two separate Christian Churches