2Italian Peninsula 100 Miles Wide 700 Miles Long Geography of Italy It looks like a high-heeled boot with thetoe aimed at Sicily.
3extinct volcano forum Vocabulary Land that can be used to arable land grow crops.extinct volcanono longer activeforumA public place wherepeople could meetand exchangeideas and goods.
4Mountains & Seas Po Valley- Adriatic Sea low land between the Alps and theApenninesAdriatic SeaApenninesRange-runs fromthe northto the southof ItalyTyrrhenianSeaMediterranean Sea
5The Italian peninsula has some valleys and plains.Most of them are at higher elevations.The land is less rugged than Greece, sotravel by land was much easier.Travel by sea was more difficult becauseItaly had few good harbors.This made trade with others living on thepeninsula easier than trading with outsiders.
6Farmland There was much more arable land in Ancient Rome than in Greece.The fertile land and mild climate were ideal for farming.The Ancient Romans didn’t need to import as much, soextensive trade wasn’t necessary.Rivers carried mineral rich silt that created goodfarmland.Volcanic ash made the soil rich. (Most of the volcanoesare now extinct.)
7Around 1000 B.C. (Latins) began migrating to the Italian Peninsula.They settled south of the Tiber River wherethey raised crops and herded sheep, goats,and cattle.Farmers and herders founded Rome in the8th century B.C. on a hill overlooking the TiberRiver. The village grew into the city of Rome.The legend of Romulus and Remus is a storytold to explain how Rome began.
8City of Rome Good soil Supplies of wood and stone nearby for building 7 hills helped in defending the cityLevel ground near the river area for the forumInland location – protected from piratesSea – 15 miles away – close to sources offish and saltRiver route to the sea – trade with other civilizationsLocated in the center of the peninsula – ideal forcommunication and trade with the rest of Italy
9The Roman Republic Around 600 B.C. the Etruscans, people from the northern part of Italy, tookcontrol of Rome. They had traded withthe Greeks, and they brought many of theGreek ideas and customs with them. After100 years of Etruscan rule, the Romansrebelled. The old monarchy ended and therepublic was formed.
10Vocabulary republic A nation in which political power lies with the citizens who elect leaders andrepresentatives.consulEither of the two main elected officialsof the Roman Republic.dictatorA ruler who has absolute power.senateIn ancient Rome, the supreme council ofthe Republic and later of the empire.
11to stop an action – from the Latin word meaning “I forbid” patricianA member of the small class of wealthy citizens in ancient Rome.plebeianA member of the large class of ordinary citizens in ancient Rome. From the Latin word plebs – “the masses.”tribuneAn official elected by the plebeian assembly.vetoto stop an action – from the Latin word meaning “I forbid”
12Patricians Wealthy Romans started the republic. Wealthy freemen formed the assembly.Wealthy Romans were elected to representthe citizens of Rome.
13Patricians Plebeians Most of the population – A small number of artisans, shopkeepers,peasants, etc. A fewwere wealthy, most werepoor.A small number ofwealthy Roman familiesthat held all governmentalpower.Class was determined by birth. Wealthy plebeians could not become patricians. Both classes had the right to vote, but only patricians could hold political, religious, or military offices. Plebeians had to serve in the army and pay taxes.
14Each year two consuls were elected by the senate. They were the chief officials. Two were electedso that no one person could have all the power.Consuls led the army and were judges. Theyhad the same power as early kings, but they couldonly serve for one year and they could veto eachother’s actions.During an emergency the consuls could appoint adictator to lead for 6 months. Even the twoconsuls had to obey the dictator.
15The consuls were advised by the senate. The 300 senators were elected for life. Theycontrolled the treasury and foreign policy.Senators had to be patricians (descendents ofearly Roman citizens), and most weremembers of wealthy families.Senators were the mostpowerfulgroup inthe government.
16The Republic of Rome was not a democracy because not every citizen had the same power.Slaves had NO rights.In 494 B.C. the plebeians withdrew from Romeand formed their own assembly. The council ofplebeians elected officials called tribunes.The patricians realized that the economy ofRome would suffer without the plebeians. Theyagreed to let the tribunes attend meetings andveto laws they didn’t like.
17Plebeians protested unwritten laws because only the patrician leadersknew exactly what they were.The Roman government began recording lawson clay tablets. The “Twelve Tables” wereposted in Rome’s Forum.Many plebeians couldn’t read thelaws, but the laws were no longerhidden.Plebeians eventually gained equalrights.
18Tribunes Were elected to protect plebeians rights Held office for one yearCould be re-electedCould defend citizens against unfairacts by magistrates or judgesCould initiate lawsCould veto measures made by thesenate
19By 367 B.C. the government had become more democratic, and by 287 B.C. complete equalityhad been reached.Two consuls – One patrician & One plebeian300 Senatorspatriciansand plebeians10tribunesCitizensAssemblies
20Roman Society Family wealth determined social class. Upper Class – Wealthy held jobs as governmentofficials.Many lived in large homes.Their needs were taken care of byslaves.Some owned 500 or more slaves.
21Lower Classes ranged form the fairly wealthy to the very poor. They held jobs such as: Soldiers FarmersMerchants CraftworkersMost lived in apartment-style dwellings. Some families lived in one room.
22Slaves were at the bottom of society. They were not counted as citizens.They were not well protected by laws.Many were freed when their owners’ died.Some were given a chance to buy theirfreedom.Living conditions depended on the owner.In all classes the men ruled the households.Women helped make decisions and gave adviceto their husbands.Women could own property!Women could take NO part in government.
23Roman Conquest By 500 B.C. the Romans had extended their power to most of the Italian peninsula.By 272 B.C. all of the peninsula was underRoman control and a rivalry developedbetween Rome and Carthage (a city-state innorthern Africa founded by the Phoenicians)over who would control sea trade in thewestern Mediterranean.
24The Punic Wars Rome and Carthage fought three wars between 264 B.C. and 146 B.C.1st War – Rome Won2nd War – Rome was threatened whenHannibal and his army (some onelephants) marched on the cityof Rome.Roman general, Scipio, attackedland in Northern Africa.
25Hannibal was forced to return to Africa to defend Carthage’s lands. Carthage gave up in 202 B.C.After the 3rd Punic War in 146 B.C., Carthagewas left in ruins and many of the Carthaginianswere sold into slavery.The word Punic comesfrom the Roman wordfor Phoenicians - PunicusGreece, Macedonia, and parts of southwest Asiawere also under Roman control.
26The Roman Republic was divided into provinces and a governor was appointed to rule each one.The people of the new provinces had to pay taxesto Rome and some were taken into slavery.Results:The rich became richer.The poor lost jobs and land because theirwork was turned over to the slaves.Conflict between rich and poor led to civilwar.After 50 years of conflict, Lucius Sullabecame dictator for 3 years.
27In 79 B.C., Sulla retired and the government returned to consuls.In 59 B.C., Julius Caesar was elected as consul.He wanted to rule all Roman Lands.He formed an army and captured Gaul (France).He became the governor of Gaul and watchedRome closely.In 49 B.C. he returned to Romeand a civil war began.After three years of war, Caesarwas appointeddictator for 10 years.
28Julius Caesar - Strong leader improved lives made laws to help the poorcreated new jobsgave citizenship to more peopleIn 44 B.C., Caesar was appointed dictator forlife. The Roman Republic was then adictatorship, and senators feared he wouldmake himself the king. Caesar was stabbed todeath on the way to the senate on March 15th(the Ides of March). Another civil war began.
29Pax Romana - Roman Peace - lasted 200 years The Roman EmpireCaesar’s grand-nephew, Octavian, becamedictator in 27 B.C. He changed his name toAugustus, meaning “respected one.”Pax Romana - Roman Peace - lasted 200 yearsAugustuswas the first trueemperor of Rome.
30Under the leadership of Augustus, the following things were accomplished:laws were passed giving citizens more rightsRomans were the first people to take a census(a count of the country’s people)A professional army, divided into large groupscalled legions, was establishedRoads were builtNew government buildings(basilicas), temples,libraries,and publicbaths were built.
31Accomplishments continued - The aqueduct system (a system to carrywater from place to place) was constructed.You can see theinfluence the Greekculture had on ourprojects.The arts and literature developed.The Roman language Latin was used ingovernment and education.
32Beginnings of Christianity Augustus was the religious leader in Rome.Many gods (many based on theGreek gods)were worshiped.Roman law punished those whodiscouraged the worship of Roman gods.Eventually emperors were worshipped as gods.Rome controlled the land of Judea. Jews wereallowed to follow their religion, but were oftenmistreated.
33The birth of Jesus affected the whole Roman Empire.Born in BethlehemGrew up in NazarethLater taught –to turn from sinbelief in one Godgrace/forgivenessPerformed miraclesJesus – the Messiah (one who is sent by God tosave the world.Disciples – followers of Jesus
34Roman Leaders became concerned as more people began to follow Jesus.The Roman governor, Pontius Pilate,ordered that Jesus be put to deathby crucifixion (30 A.D.)The teachings of Jesus spread and were calledChristianity. The Apostles – followers of Jesus –spread the word.Christians were persecuted, and Romans oftenordered their deaths. Many Christians becamemartyrs who would die willingly for their beliefs.
35Persecution of the Christians stopped around A.D.313. Constantine became the new emperor afterhe received a “message from God.” He wonthe battle against another Roman general andtook over the leadership of Rome.Constantine issued the Edict of Milan inA.D. 313, making Christianity an acceptedreligion.Christianity became the official religion of theRoman Empire in A.D EmperorTheodosius was in power.
36Writing by Christians, like Paul, were saved and shared with others.The gospels told of Jesus’ birth, life, death, andresurrection.The Old Testament – Books of the Biblebefore Jesus.The New Testament – Books of the Bibleabout Jesus and Histeachings.
37Christianity in Rome eventually became the Roman Catholic Church headed by the Pope.There are many other Christian churchesin the world today with over2 billion believers.
38Rome's Decline in the West Trouble in the Roman EmpireBarbarians – outsiders - began to attack theEmpire’s borders.Germanic tribes from the northPersians from the eastAfrican people, called Berbers, from the southRulers in Rome were unable to govern effectively.Tyrants seized control.Citizens lost respect for the government.
39The Roman Empire Splits in Two The economy began to suffer.Trade declined and money lost value.The price of food rose.The Roman Empire Splits in TwoDiocletian came to powerin 284 A.D.He divided the leadership of theEmpire.He led the east. His trusted friendled the west.
40Constantine, another leader, made Christianity an acceptedreligion and helped keep the Empirealive.He also focused on the eastern partof the Empire.Constantine moved the capital of the Empire toByzantium – renamed the city Constantinople.In 395 A.D., the Empire officially split.East grew – West declined
42By 500 A.D., the Roman Empire had broken into A Time of InvasionsLate 300’s and 400’s A.D –They needed land to escape the Huns.The Vandals, a tribe, attacked Rome in406 A.D.Germanic tribes invaded again.They took items and destroyed monuments.Today, the word vandal means – someone whopurposely destroys another’s property.By 500 A.D., the Roman Empire had broken intoseveral kingdoms.