1 Coach Parrish OMS Chapter 8, Section 1 The Roman RepublicCoach ParrishOMSChapter 8, Section 1
2 Geographical Advantages Rome was founded at its location because it had a river (Tiber River) that gave it fertile soil, and mountains that protected the city.
3 The EtruscansRome was founded around 900 BC, and it grew slowly as the Romans fought their neighbors for land.Around 600 BC, the Etruscans took power in Rome. Their rule would be short lived however because Rome founded a Republic upon defeating the Etruscans.
4 Romans Form a RepublicAfter removing the Etruscan king, Rome vowed to never again have a king with so much power. By 264 BC, the Romans had gained control of the entire Italian peninsula.Republic – citizens who have the right to vote select their leaders.
5 The Roman SenateIn the Republic, the most powerful branch of government was the senate. At first, the senate was composed of 300 upper-class men called patricians. Senators were appointed for life.Patrician – member of a wealthy family.Plebeians – ordinary citizen. They could not hold office or be in the senate.
6 Roman ConsulsConsuls – two chief officials led the Roman government. They were responsible for enforcing laws and policies.The consuls were elected by citizens, ruled for one year only, and were advised by the senate. Both consuls had to agree or a government action was dropped.Veto – rejection of any planned action by a person in power. (Both consuls had veto power)
7 Other Important Officials Because of occasional consul disagreement, Roman law held that a dictator could be appointed to handle such an emergency.Dictator – Roman official who had all the powers of a king but could only rule for 6 months.
8 Patricians vs. Plebeians Tension between the patricians and plebeians began because:Plebeians felt the Senate treated them unfairly.Plebeians were losing work b/c the Patricians were buying farm land and giving work to the slaves.
9 Patricians Versus Plebeians, cont. Eventually, the plebeians refused to fight in the Roman army.The patricians responded by issuing a written code of laws for all citizens.It was called the Laws of the Twelve Tables.
10 Masters of the Mediterranean The Romans expanded their empire by conquering new territories. They conquered Carthage in North Africa in 146 BC after a long and bloody battle.In the same year, Greece fell into Roman rule, and the Roman army turned its attention to Gaul (France).
11 Decline of the Republic By 120 BC, Rome was in trouble. Civil War broke out among the Roman generals. Each consul no longer respected the veto power of the other.Just when it looked like Rome was going to collapse, a strong leader came to power, Julius Caesar.
12 Julius Caesar This is believed to be the only surviving bust made during his lifetime.
13 Rise of Julius CaesarFrom 58 – 51 BC, Caesar led the army that conquered Gaul (France). He killed and enslaved millions of people living in Gaul.In 49 BC, Caesar returned to Italy where a major dispute began between the senate and himself. After Caesar’s victory, he became dictator in 48 BC, ruling much longer than 6 months.
14 Death of a DictatorFor four years, Caesar took over important offices. In 45 BC, he became the only consul. In 44 BC, he became dictator for life. (He proclaimed this title himself.)On March 15, 44 BC, Caesar was murdered by members of the senate. They felt he had obtained too much power. This date is referred to as the Ides of March.
16 From Republic to Empire Civil War followed Caesar’s death. When the war ended 13 years later, Caesar’s adopted son, Octavian held power.In 27 BC, Octavian was given the title of Augustus by the senate which means “highly respected.” He was the first emperor of Rome. This marked the end of the Roman Republic. Rome was now an empire!