Justinian’s Code Corpus Juris Civilis (body of civil law): 1. Digest 2. Code 3. Institutes
CHRISTIANS With Differences West (Roman Catholic) Pope in Rome Latin Language Most important holy day Christmas East (Eastern Orthodox) Patriarch in Constantinople Clergy could marry Greek Language Most important holy day Easter
Dispute over use of icons (Holy Images) contributed to split Byzantine Emperor outlawed prayer to icons Two branches of Christianity grew further apart 1054 provoked a permanent split between Byzantine, Eastern (Greek) Orthodox and Roman Catholic Church Iconoclasm – The breaking of images; religious controversy of the 8 th c. Byzantine emperor attempted, but failed to suppress icon veneration Great Schism (Split) 1054 CE
in 1204, the Crusaders attacked, conquered, and pillaged the city of Constantinople, a goal that the Muslims had been trying achieve for centuries
In 1453, the city was conquered by the Ottoman Turks and renamed Istanbul. Byzantine culture, law, and administration came to its final end.
1. Throughout the early Middle Ages, the Byzantine Empire remained a protective barrier between western Europe and hostile Persian, Arab, and Turkish armies. 2. The Byzantines were also a major conduit of classical learning and science into the West. 3. Served as a model of civilized society for the rest of Western Europe. Legacy of Byzantine Empire