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Byzantine Empire Heir to Ancient Rome.

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Presentation on theme: "Byzantine Empire Heir to Ancient Rome."— Presentation transcript:

1 Byzantine Empire Heir to Ancient Rome

2 System of land and sea walls
Constantinople Center of the empire Excellent Harbor For Defense: Guarded on 3 sides System of land and sea walls



5 Wealth and Riches of Empire
Commanded key trade routes linking Europe and Asia Europe's busiest marketplace Hippodrome – arena for chariot races

6 Age of Justinian Emperor Justinian

7 Wanted to revive glory of Ancient Rome
Re-conquered territories in North Africa, Southern Spain, and Italy Built church of Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom) Collected, revised, and organized all Ancient Rome's law into Justinian Code



10 Justinian Code Unified empire
Became basis of laws for Church and Medieval monarchs for centuries Set out guidelines for international law today

11 Justinian's Absolute Power
Autocrat Taxes ensured strong industry and military Emperor is Christ's co-ruler on Earth Controlled BOTH Church and Secular matters

12 Theodora Justinian's wife – was an actress
Stopped revolt & saved empire from falling Negotiated peace treaty with Persians Championed rights of women Set up hospitals for the poor


14 Strengths of the Empire
Strong central government Trade and industry flourished Healthy money economy Peasants formed backbone of empire for working land, taxes & military,

15 Byzantine emperor Constantine IV sent his fleet to meet the Arabs near Syllaeum, and the Arab fleet was destroyed by Greek fire, a new Byzantine weapon that had been used for the first time only a few years before. As the Arabs retreated they were caught in a storm that sank nearly all of their ships. It was capable of discharging a stream of burning fluid, and was very effective both on sea and land, but it was used primarily at sea. It is rumored that the key to Greek Fire's effectiveness was that it would continue burning under almost any conditions, even under water.

16 Byzantine Christianity

17 Differences between Eastern & Western Church
Emperor controlled Church Appointed a “Patriarch” or highest church official Rejected popes claim of authority over all Christians

18 Byzantine Clergy Can Marry Greek not Latin language of Church Chief holy day is Easter, not Christmas

19 Split in Eastern & Western Church widens
Eastern Christians prayed to Icons (holy images) of Christ, Mary & Saints 700’s, Byzantine Emperor banned practice Violent battles Pope excommunicated emperor Later pope and emperor excommunicated each other leading to a schism (permanent split)


21 The beginning of the End
Wars & problems with succession Powerful local lords gained control of large areas As the empire faltered, enemies advanced Seljuk Turks began advancing across Asia minor


23 Crusades and Constantinople
1090’s, emperor called for western help to fight Seljuk Turks – first crusade Fourth crusade: knights convinced by Venetian merchants to attack Constantinople – 1204 Looted & plundered

24 Empire never recovers Byzantine emperor eventually recovered the throne but…. Venetian merchants gained control over Byzantine trade draining the wealth Ottoman Turks over run Asia minor

25 End of an Empire 1453, Constantinople under siege for two months by Ottoman Turks Last emperor died fighting Ottoman ruler Muhammad II renamed the city Istanbul Became the Great center of Muslim culture

26 Byzantine Legacy Blended Christian beliefs with Greek science, philosophy, arts and literature Extended roman achievements in engineering and law Influence spread through Europe

27 Byzantine legacy Ottoman conquerors adapted features of Byzantine Government, social life, and Architecture Architecture = blended Greek, Roman, Persian and other styles

28 World of Learning Byzantine scholars preserved classic works of ancient Greece Produced own histories When empire collapsed, Greek scholars left taking knowledge, culture, and scripts to the west contributing to the renaissance

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