Presentation on theme: "NATURAL RESOURCE CLASS TREE AND PLANT IDENTIFICATION."— Presentation transcript:
NATURAL RESOURCE CLASS TREE AND PLANT IDENTIFICATION
Trees Important Terms: Trees make up the canopy of the forest Trees make up the canopy of the forest Conifers = Softwoods = Cone- bearing Trees Conifers = Softwoods = Cone- bearing Trees Deciduous = Hardwoods = Trees that shed their leaves annually Deciduous = Hardwoods = Trees that shed their leaves annually Evergreens = Needle-bearing or Leaf-bearing trees that don’t shed their leaves annually Evergreens = Needle-bearing or Leaf-bearing trees that don’t shed their leaves annually
Douglas Fir Pseudotsuga menziesii Not a true fir!
Western Red Cedar Thuja plicata Not a Cedar but a Cypress
Western Hemlock Tsuga heterophylla Washington State Tree
Rocky Mountain Juniper Juniperous scopulorum Identified by the blue berry-like fruit
Sitka Spruce Picea sitchensis 3 rd tallest tree in the world
Vine Maple Acer circinatum Commonly grows underneath taller trees
Bigleaf Maple Acer macrophyllum Largest leaves of any Maple
Red Alder Alnus rubra Largest Alder in the world…one of it’s uses is for electric guitars
Pacific Madrone Arbutus menziesii An evergreen tree that is deciduous, therefore hardwood
Ponderosa Pine Pinus ponderosa First one was discovered in 1826 around Spokane
Lodgepole Pine Pinus contorta So-named because American Indians used them for their teepees as they grow straight and relatively knot-free
Western White Pine Pinus monticola The needles are in bundles of 5. 90% of these have been killed west of the Cascades by White Pine Blister Rust
Noble Fir Abies procera Grows in high altitudes and is a popular Christmas Tree.
Grand Fir Abies grandis Tolerates temperatures below -40 0 C Wood is used for paper and cheap construction
Western Larch Larix laricina A deciduous coniferous tree Is extremely cold-tolerant, surviving -65 0 C
Engelmann Spruce Picea engelmannii A high-altitude mountain tree
Lombardi Poplar Populus nigra ‘Italica’ Commonly used as windbreaks and ornamentals
Cottonwood Populus trichocarpa Named for the cotton-like substance it produces and sheds annually
Western Paper Birch Betula papyrifera Produces catkins
Oregon Ash Fraxinus latifolia The largest flowering plant in the world Louisville Slugger baseball bats are all made of ash wood (White Ash)
Shrubs Shrubs are plants that grow in the understory of the forest. Shrubs are plants that grow in the understory of the forest. Most, but not all, thrive in shaded areas Most, but not all, thrive in shaded areas Some, such as blackberries, thrive where trees have been clear cut Some, such as blackberries, thrive where trees have been clear cut Heights range from 10 ft. to 1 ft. Heights range from 10 ft. to 1 ft.
Salal Gaultheria shallon Its berries are edible. Grows both in shade and open sun areas. Florists pay huge prices for Salal to use in flower arrangements.
Oregon Grape MahoniaMahonia aquifolium Berries are edible Not a grape at all Its foliage is used by florists Grows 2 to 5 ft. in height
Evergreen Huckleberry Vaccinium ovatum Edible, tasty berries This plant is strictly native to the Northwest
Red Huckleberry Vaccinium parvifolium Native to the Pacific Northwest Berries are edible, but very tart
Pacific Rhododendron Rhododendron macrophyllum Some reach 12 ft. tall
Western Azalea Rhododendron tsutsusi The Azalea is in the Rhododendron family, the only difference in them is the size of the blooms
Pacific Serviceberry Amelanchier alnifolia Often mistaken for wild blueberries Native Americans made arrow shafts from their stems
Pacific Dogwood Cornus nuttallii The Provincial flower of B.C.
Oceanspray Holodiscus discolor Found in areas prone to wildfires and is usually the first plant to grow back after a burn.
Wild Rose Rosa woodsii Wild roses provide food and shelter for small wildlife and birds.
Indian Plum Oemleria cerasiformis These produce a very small plum- like fruit that is edible. In the Pacific Northwest, these are the main plant in the understory of the forest.
Hazelnut Corylus avellana Very closely related to the Filbert and is concentrated in two states in the U.S. Oregon and Washington
Pacific Ninebark Physocarpus capitatus Mostly found in wetlands and along streams
Red Currant Ribes rubrum Used commonly for medicinal uses, including digestive, diuretic, and blood cleansing
Salmonberry Rubus spectabilis Produces yellow, red, and orange berries. Very important food for the Native Americans.
Red Elderberry Sambucus racemosa Although birds eat the berries, they are quite poisonous to humans when eaten raw.
Snowberry Symphoricarpos albus Important food for quail, pheasant, and grouse but TOXIC to humans
Sword Fern Polystichum munitum The favored habitat of this fern is the understory of moist coniferous forests at low elevations. coniferous
Bracken Fern Pteridium aquilinum Bracken Fern is great cover for small animals, such as insects, spiders, and salamanders. Old fronds bend and cover the forest floor or meadow, hiding these animals from predators.cover predators
Deer Fern Blechnum spicant It resembles a miniature Sword fern but smaller with rounded fronds. It gets the name Deer Fern because it provides winter forage for deer, elk, caribou, moose & bighorn sheep from the Columbia River to Alaska
Groundcovers The lowest level of growth in the forest The lowest level of growth in the forest Very important to the soil and minerals Very important to the soil and minerals Many of these serve as forage for small game animals Many of these serve as forage for small game animals All of these serve as protection for small game animals All of these serve as protection for small game animals The first plants to thrive after a forest fire The first plants to thrive after a forest fire
Kinnickinnick Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Commonly called “bearberry” Used by Native Americans as tonics for certain ailments
Thimbleberry Rubus parviflorus Berries are edible Shaped like a thimble
Beach Strawberry Fragaria chiloensis These were 1 of 2 wild varieties that were hybridized to produce the modern garden strawberry
Slender Wintergreen Gaultheria ovatifolia Evergreen groundcover with edible berries
Twinflower Linnaea borealis Notice how this plant earned its name? Grows in dense brush at most elevatons
Heather (Calluna) Calluna vulgaris It is a low-growing perennial shrub growing to 20 inches tall, or rarely to 39 in. Heather is a very popular ornamental plant in gardens and for landscaping.perennialshrub ornamental plantgardens
False Lily of the Valley Maianthemum dilatatum Found in the wild growing in open forests and on damp soils in grassy ditches and thickets.
Western Columbine Aquilegia formosa Aquilegia comes from the Latin word aquil, meaning eagle, referring to the shape of the petals. Formosa means beautiful.
Great Camas Camassia quamash Except for choice varieties of dried salmon, no other food item was more widely traded as Camas. Native American people traveled great distances to harvest the bulbs.
Goatsbeard Aruncus dioicus Aruncus, from the Greek aryngos ("goat's beard"), refers to the showy, finger-like flower clusters, which form feathery masses of all male or all female flowers.
Bleeding Heart Dicentra formosa This is native of our very own Pacific Northwest's moist & shady woodland areas, but also seen alongside roads' drainage ditches in fuller sun
Western Trillium Trillium ovatum Its petals vary from white to maroon There is a folk belief that if you pick the bloom, the plant will not flower for seven years. This belief exaggerates the impact of picking the flower, but removing the stem and food- making leaves will set the plant back.
Inside-out Flower Vancouveria hexandra Inside-out flower is named after Captain George Vancouver and its epithet hexandra, means six stamens. Modern medicinal uses are for sinus congestion, chronic rhinitis and hay fever.
Piggy Back Plant Tolmiea Menziesii Grows naturally in the wild, however is a popular houseplant as well
David Viburnum Viburnum Davidii They are eaten by birds and other wildlife, and some are edible for humans (though many others are mildly poisonous to people).birdswildlife poisonous
Forget-me-nots Myosotis salvatica The Alaskan state flower
Foxglove Digitalis purpurea The entire plant is toxic (including the roots and seeds), although the leaves of the upper stem are particularly potent, with just a nibble being enough potentially to cause death
Trailing Blackberry Rubus ursinus The branches of these can reach up to 10-20 feet long
Himalayan Blackberry Rubus armeniacus One of the top 10 most noxious weeds in the Northwest.
Evergreen Blackberry Rubus laciniatus Introduced in the 1800’s from Europe along with the Himalayan Blackberry, which originated in Asia. Considered a noxious weed by some people