2 True firs (Abies) Cones perch on the topmost branches. Leaves of most species are about 1" long and are highly aromatic. White bands on the underside but some have are green on top while others are blue-green to white.Twigs without needles have tiny, flat, circular leaf scars.Sometimes called ‘balsam fir’ Young stems have fragrant resin blisters.Well-adapted to snowy environments because their short, stiff branches and pointed tops shed snow without breaking
6 True firs of the PNW Grand fir Pacific Silver fir Noble fir Sub alpine fir
7 UsesResins and oils from the bark and foliage of true firs are used for a variety of productsperfumesadhesivespharmaceuticalsChristmas treesSome attribute a healing effect to this liquid.
8 Douglas Fir Psuedotsuga Not a ‘true-fir’Single yellow-green needles, about 1 inch long that encircle the stem and twist at the base with two white bands underneath.Cones up to 4 inches long, with pitchfork-shaped bracts protecting the seeds. Bark deeply furrowed on mature trees. Top erect.
10 Douglas fir uses Most important lumber tree in the U.S. Used for plywoodChristmas treespaper and paper products.
11 Spruces (Picea)Needles: generally stiff and sharp; about 1" long OUCH.Each spruce needle springs from a tiny, woody peg.Cones: most have papery thin scales.Bark: mostly thin and flaky.Over 40 species, 2 of which are common in the PNWEngelmannSitka
12 Spruce use Musical instruments The Wright brothers Flyer Indoor constructionVitamin CChristmas trees
14 Sitka SpruceNeedles: 1" long; sharp; yellow-green to blue green; often flat (difficult to roll between your fingers).Fruit: Woody cones; 1-4" long; hang down; very thin scales with jagged edges.Twigs: Each needle is borne on a square, raised, woody peg
18 Engelmann spruceNeedles: 1" long; sharp; blue-green to green; all tend to point forward; are usually square in cross-section and therefore roll between the fingers; stink when crushed.Fruit: Woody cones about 2" long; hang down; very thin scales with jagged edges
20 Larch/TamarackNeedles are deciduous. turn yellow before they fall.1" long and typically grow in dense clusters(20-40) attached to short woody shoots (called spur shoots).Needles are soft to the touch--never sharp or spiny. Current-year needles are borne singly on slender pegs.Small, woody cones (1-2" long)
23 Hemlock (Tsuga)Needles: generally under 1" long on a small, raised, rounded peg.Needles of some species are green on top with white bands beneath, while others have uniform color on top and bottom.Small cones (1-3" long).Trees have distinctive droopy tops and branches
25 Mountain HemlockNeedles: Between 1/2" and 1" long; blunt; green to blue-green in color; uniform color on all sides of a single needle; star-like appearance on short shoots.Cones 1-3" long; thin, rounded scales.
26 Western HemlockNeedles: Short (under 3/4" long) and blunt; two distinctly different sizes; green above and white underneathCones small (about 1"); egg-shaped; thin, smooth scales.Twigs: Thin and droopy; have small, rounded pegs (leaf scars) on twigs with 1 needle arising from each peg.