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Chapter 9 Forest Biomes Covers 30% of the Earth Contains 75 % of Earth’s Biomass.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 Forest Biomes Covers 30% of the Earth Contains 75 % of Earth’s Biomass."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 9 Forest Biomes Covers 30% of the Earth Contains 75 % of Earth’s Biomass

2 9.1 Coniferous Forest  Limited to the Northern Hemisphere (far from the equator)  High latitudes (closer to the Arctic)  Summers are warm and last 2-5 months  Winters are long and very cold  40-200 cm of precipitation (as rain and snow) per year

3 9.1 Coniferous Forest  Coniferous means “cone bearing”  Conifers (coniferous trees) producer seeds in cones  Leaves have adapted to conserve water by producing long-thin with a thick waxy coat called needles

4 9.1 Coniferous Forest  Tree is also a cone- shaped - the needles allow heavy snow to fall through the branches  Conifers are “evergreen” they do not loose all their leaves in winter but keep them all year round

5 9.1 Coniferous Forest  Examples of conifers: Hemlock, Spruce, Cedar, Pine  Forests are not diverse – usually only one or two types of pine.  Soil is poor and very acidic Hemlock Blue Spruce Scotch Pine Eastern Cedar

6 9.1 Coniferous Forest  Plants: Ferns, Lichens and Sphagnum moss grown on forest floor  Animals: Large herbivores – moose, elk  Small herbivores – beaver, snowshoe hare, squirrel, mouse, blue jay  Carnivores – grizzly bear, wolves, fox, weasel, lynx, owl, eagle

7 9.2 Deciduous Forest  Deciduous tree sheds its leaves during the winter  Temperature ranges from 30oC in summer to -30oC in winter  Precipitation 50 – 300 cm (rain/snow) per year  Forests found in the temperate zones – mostly Europe and North America Maple tree

8 9.2 Deciduous Forest  Growing season is 6 months long  Sunlight is used by chlorophyll in the leaves to make food  Autumn has shorter days – chlorophyll fades –other pigments show through  All pigments fade, leaves dry up and fall off tree

9 9.2 Deciduous Forest  Deciduous forest has 4 layers:  Canopy – top layer  Understory – third layer  Shrubs – second layer  Floor – bottom  Lots of biodiversity so lots of organic matter in the soil (humus-Ch 8)

10 9.2 Deciduous Forest  Food web has many organisms:  Decomposers (fungi and bacteria)  Insects (bees, flies) and invertebrates (worms)  Herbivores (deer, rabbits, mice)  Carnivores (mountain lions, wolves, eagles, owls)

11 9.2 Deciduous Forest  Human activity has shrunk the vast area that was the temperate deciduous forest.  Two reasons: rich soil for farming and the trees for wood, fuel and paper  Replanting trees does not restore the forest ecosystem

12 9.3 Rain Forest  Tropical zone is located at or near the equator.  Direct rays from the sun keep temperatures warm 25oC or higher  Growing season is 12 months  Precipitation 100-450 cm of rain a year

13 9.3 Rain Forest  Dense canopy of evergreen broadleaf trees  Contains 70-90% of all species on Earth  Only 6% on the Earth’s surface  40% of the Earth’s biomass  Most biodiverse biome

14 9.3 Rainforest  Several levels:  Emergent trees- top layer, 99% sunlight (50-60 m)  Upper canopy – next layer – less than 1% filtered sunlight  Lower canopy – third layer, less than 1% filtered sunlight  Understory – fourth layer, dense shade  Forest floor – little or no sunlight

15 9.3 Rainforest  Top soil is thin – 99% of available nutrients in only 5 cm of top layer soil  Tree roots are shallow and trees develop extra roots - Buttresses - to support the immense height  Dead organic matter decomposes and is recycled quickly

16 9.3 Rainforest  Most activity takes place in the canopy layer  Many rainforest organisms never touch the ground  Vast diversity of plant life leads to vast diversity of animals  Habitats vary from tree to tree and level to level  Complex food webs with many species interactions

17 9.3 Rainforest  Greatest biodiveristy for plants, animals and insects  Many species haven’t even been discovered yet  Fungus beetle, toucans and howler monkeys spend their time in the upper canopy  Blue bird-of-paradise travels from the lower canopy to the forest floor  Margay cat hunts understory and forest floor  Tapir lives on the forest floor

18 9.3 Rainforest Deforestation

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