2Location of Temperate Rainforests Major locations of temperate rainforest include the pacific coast of North America, and parts of southern South America.
3ClimateTemperate rainforests have four distinct seasons. Precipitation is high while temperatures are mild. The minimum winter temperatureis -12℃ and the annualprecipitation is between 750 and2000 mm.
4WinterDuring the winter, plants create a sugar solution so that water does not freeze in the stem, helping the plant survive through the winter. This preserves the plant until spring.
5SpringSpring is when plants get rid of the sugar solution and new leaves grow on trees in order for both to begin the process of photosynthesis again.
6SummerSummer in the temperate rainforest is dry and foggy.
7AutumnThe leaves of deciduous trees change colour in autumn because the trees stop producing chlorophyll, the substance that makes tree leaves green.
8Benefits of a Mild Climate The mild weather of the temperate rainforest makes for a longer growing season. This means enough crops can be harvested for food during the colder months.
9Soil TypeDecaying matter and fallen leaves and needles from trees on the forest floor break down into humus, releasing nutrients for plant growth. These nutrients create a black or dark brown coloured fertile soil. The type soil that forms in the temperate rainforest is called pedalfer soil.
10BiomassSince the climate of a temperate rainforest is milder than that of a tropical rainforest, it experiences less biodiversity. However, this biome has the most biomass out of all the biomes. Biomass is the total mass of organisms in a given area % of the biomass in this biome exists in the decaying matter.
11Benefits of Large Biomass A large biomass provides good chances of regeneration after clear cutting
12Plant Life and Adaptations Temperate Rainforests contain mainly coniferous trees including western red cedar, douglas fir, and hemlock. However, it is also home to some deciduous trees such as maple, chestnut, poplar, and oak. Trees are able to grow very tall because of high amounts of precipitation.
13Cathedral GroveCathedral Grove is home to some of the widest and tallest trees in British Columbia.
14Plant Life and Adaptations Trees in this biome grow very large leaves to soak up as much sunlight as possible.
15Plant Life and Adaptations Trees produce sap during the winter to keep their roots from freezing. In the spring the sap can be tapped to make syrup and is then used as energy to start growing again.
16Plant Life and Adaptations Besides the pain it brings you when you touch it, Stinging Nettle has many different uses. It can be used for medicine, young leaves can be eaten raw with caution or cooked (an excellent source of vitamin B, proteins, and iron. It can also be used to maketeas which act as a preventative against allergies.
17Plant Life and Adaptations The outer bark on trees in temperate rainforests protects the tree from insects and insulates the tree from extreme weather conditions.
18Plant Life and Adaptations Indian Paintbrush is a recognized by its bright red, clover-like flowers.
19Plant Life and Adaptations The salmonberry is a relative of the blackberry and raspberry. It produces berries in the spring that appear to be orange raspberries. Both the berry and the shoot are edible.
20Plant Life and Adaptations There are many epiphytes in a temperate rainforest. An epiphyte is a plant that grows on another plant but is not parasitic. Epiphytes grow on higher plants in order to reach more sunlight. Examples of these in a temperate rainforests are mosses, ferns, and lichens.
21Vegetation Layers and Seasons The temperate rainforest has five layers in its structure. They are tree stratum, small tree or sapling, shrub, herb, and forest floor.
22Tree StratumThe tree stratum is approximately metres high and contains trees such as oak, maple, walnut, and hickory. This zone receives the most sunlight out of all the layers.
232. Small Tree and SaplingThe small tree and sapling zone contains not only young trees of the same species of those in the tree stratum, but also species exclusive to this zone. A few of these are dogwood, sourwood, and shadbush.
243. ShrubThe next layer is called the shrub layer. This zone contains species such as rhododendron, azaleas, and huckleberries.
254. HerbThis layer includes short, herbal plants as well as other small plants.
265. Forest FloorOn the forest floor there are many different species. Some of which include mosses, lichens, mushrooms, nursing logs, fallen leaves, needles, and branches. This layer is always damp and shaded.
27Food WebThe food web of temperate rainforests is generalized, this means that one predator can and will eat many different preys.
28Wildlife and Adaptations The banana slug is the second largest slug in the world. It is bright yellow in colour and sometimes has spots that are brown, green, or black spots. The slime on their bellies helps protect them from sharp objects. It helps with the decomposition and the nutrient cycles where it lives by eating decomposing organic matter.
29Wildlife and Adaptations The cougar is the second largest cat in the New World. Its diet is a broad one. They will eat anything they can find from moose to porcupines to snails and even other cougars.
30Wildlife and Adaptations Raccoons have needed to broaden their diet because humans are continuously overtaking their territory. Their hand-like paws give them the ability to grasp various objects such as trash can lids.
31Wildlife and Adaptations Each of a black bears eyes can see the world with two completely separate pictures. This is called monocular vision,it allows the bear more peripheral vision to scan more easily for prey.
32Wildlife and Adaptations White-tailed deer have brown, soft fur to keep them warm during the winter. Their antlers help protect them from other predators. Deer are active at all times of the day.