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English Colonization and the 13 Colonies Chapter 1 Section 3.

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Presentation on theme: "English Colonization and the 13 Colonies Chapter 1 Section 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 English Colonization and the 13 Colonies Chapter 1 Section 3

2 English Colonization of North America: Background No English Colonization before the late 1500s – Late 1400s civil war – Early 1500s Protestant Reformation (Henry VIII) Late 1500’s major issues over—ready to go Wanted to compete with Spain Enclosure movement in England—surplus population Religious issues: more later

3 English Colonization: Early Attempts Newfoundland (Canada) 1583 failed—too cold Roanoke (North Carolina/Virginia Border) 1585 failed—got cut off by Spanish navy 1588 Spanish Armada defeated by the English—no more barriers to colonization

4 Southern Colonies: Virginia 1607 Virginia Company of London establishes Jamestown—1 st permanent settlement by the English in future US No reason for the colony, didn’t make money, until tobacco 1612—cash crop Interacted and fought with the Powhatan Confederacy of Virginia

5 Southern Colonies: Maryland 1634 founded by Catholics seeking refuge from persecution in England George Calvert, Lord Baltimore 1649 Act of Toleration (meant to protect Catholics from persecution) didn’t protect whom? A lot like Virginia—tobacco centered Virginia+Maryland=Chesapeake Colonies

6 Southern Colonies: Carolinas North Carolina: unofficially settled by poor/outcasts from Virginia in the 1650s 1663 area of soon-to-be North and South Carolina granted to 8 nobles by King Charles II (Carolina) at first one big colony – Fun fact: religious toleration Southern part settled by wealthier English from the English Caribbean: important African slavery AND slave codes North and South Carolina very different: North=a lot like Virginia (tobacco), South=richer, grew rice and indigo tied to the Caribbean 1712 the colony split in 2—North and South Carolina

7 Southern Colonies: Georgia 1733 founded by James Oglethorpe (General) 2 purposes: – more humane option than prison for non-violent prisoners, and – military buffer against Spanish in Florida Religious toleration but no Catholics allowed, why? Successful as a military buffer, not successful as a reform colony A lot like S. Carolina, grew rice indigo for sale as cash crops, became dependent on African slavery

8 Southern Colonies: Recap 5 total Virginia-1607 Maryland-1634 N. Carolina-unofficially 1650s, officially as part of Carolina Colony 1663, own colony 1712 S. Carolina-organized on paper 1663, actually settled 1670, own colony 1712 Georgia-1733

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10 New England Colonies: Background Protestant Reformation in England, new religion=Church of England, Anglican Church Protestant but still a lot of Catholic traditions Some wanted to “Purify” the Anglican Church of its Catholic traits—Puritans Some wanted to leave entirely—Separatists Catholics persecuted (Maryland), other Protestant religions persecuted as well, Puritans/Separatists

11 New England: Plymouth and Massachusetts Separatists  England  Holland  England  America Headed for Virginia, ended up in New England 1620 Pilgrims—Mayflower Compact Puritans decided to leave as well Massachusetts Bay Colony, Boston ships over 1,000 colonists Massachusetts took over Plymouth eventually

12 New England: Massachusetts Offshoots 1635 migrants from Mass want more room, settle at Hartford: Thomas Hooker—Connecticut 1638 New Haven—eventually becomes part of Connecticut 1636 Roger Williams kicked out of Mass—Rhode Island—religious toleration 1640’s New Hampshire and Maine settled by migrants from Mass, king grants both areas to two of his friends, one sells his land to Mass (Maine), one doesn’t (New Hampshire)

13 New England: Recap 4 colonies Massachusetts Bay (includes Plymouth and Maine) Connecticut 1635 (includes New Haven) Rhode Island 1636 New Hampshire 1640’s All New England colonies dominated by Puritanism (except Rhode Island) Note: Maine and Vermont not part of the 13 colonies

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15 Middle Colonies: Beginnings Not colonized by the English at first: Dutch, Swedes Dutch: New Netherland (Modern-day NY, NJ) New Amsterdam (NYC), Fort Orange (Albany) Swedes: New Sweden (Delaware)-taken over by Dutch 1664 New Netherland conquered by the English, given to the Duke of York

16 Middle Colonies: English Colonization New York 1664 New Jersey 1664 given by the Duke of York to two of his noble friends, eventually sold to a group of Quakers—used as a haven for Quakers Pennsylvania 1681 given to William Penn by the King: based on Quaker ideals—religious toleration, non-violence toward Indians, equality among social classes, slavery discouraged (not banned though) Delaware 1681 part of the land given to William Penn: separate colony but same governor as PA

17 Middle Colonies: Recap 4 middle colonies New York 1664 New Jersey 1664 Pennsylvania 1681 Delaware 1681 All colonies except NY influenced by the Quakers, all colonies except NY had official religious toleration (New York was pretty tolerant of other religions although Anglicanism was the official religion technically)

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