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20 th Century Chapter 20 United States Adventures in Time and Place.

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1 20 th Century Chapter 20 United States Adventures in Time and Place

2 World War I  In August 1914 WWI began.  Allied Powers – Britain, France, Italy, Belgium, and Russia  Central Powers – Germany, Austria- Hungary, and Turkey  Few Americans were eager to involve the U.S. in a distant conflict.  Woodrow Wilson was president at this time. He won reelection with the slogan, “He kept us out of war.” ool/academics/sped/images/wilson- woodrow.jpg

3 Dangers at Sea  Britain and Germany were fighting over control of the sea. Both wanted to keep the other side from receiving the supplies it needed.  Germans used U-boats, or submarines.  Germany sunk the Lusitania which contained weapons and people – 1,198 people died. 128 of them were Americans.  People in the U.S. were angry!  The U.S. bought the Virgin Islands from Denmark for $25 million to protect American shipping and the Panama Canal. The U.S. built a naval base on these islands.  From Jan. to March of 1917, Germans sank 8 U.S. ships.  President Wilson asked Congress to declare war on the Central Powers. On April 16, 1917, they did. gov/archive/lusitania2.jpg

4 Uncle Sam   Uncle Sam is a symbol of the United States, with the first usage of the term dating from the War of 1812 and the first illustration dating from   During WWI a very famous poster showed Uncle Sam pointing at the people with the words, “I WANT YOU FOR U.S. ARMY.” The artist James Montgomery Flagg painted the poster in i/Image:Unclesamwantyo u.jpg

5 The War Front  The war in Europe was a new kind of war.  Technology made combat more destructive – machine guns, airplanes, tanks, poison gas.  About 30,000 American soldiers lost their lives at the battle of Meuse- Argonne.  By the end of the war, about 2 million Americans had served in the military, but blacks and whites still couldn’t fight along side each other. The military was still segregated. westfront/tanks_franzoesisch1.jpg

6 The Home Front  The army needed weapons, food, clothing, and fuel.  The government took over the railroads and telegraphs to speed production.  Many factories worked overtime.  With men fighting overseas, many jobs became available to African Americans and women.  People helped the war effort by saving scarce products or doing without them. The government asked for “Wheatless Mondays” and “Meatless Tuesdays” so more food would be available for troops.  In 1918 Congress adopted daylight savings time. By setting their clocks an hour earlier, Americans gained an extra hr. of daylight and saved fuel needed for war. /help_05_06/exemplary_papers05 /lu_3_2/n6.jpg

7 Making Peace  The continuing arrival of American troops, money, and supplies weakened the Central Powers.  On Nov. 11, 1918, they surrendered. This is now a holiday called Veteran’s Day.  10 million soldiers were killed. Over 100,000 Americans.  In 1919 representatives of the Allied Powers met in Versailles, France. They created a peace agreement that blamed the war on Germany. It was called the Treaty of Versailles.  The treaty took away Germany’s colonies, redrew its national borders, and demanded that Germany pay heavy fines.  President Wilson persuaded the Allied Powers to create a League of Nations, the 1 st organization of countries designed to prevent future wars.  Many Americans were afraid the League of Nations would drag the U.S. into more wars. Congress rejected Wilson’s plans to join the League. nVersailles.jpg

8 The Great Migration  In the 1890s many African Americans moved from rural areas to more urban areas in the Northeast and Middle West.  Most moved north to escape discrimination and poverty.  Factory jobs were a great improvement over farm work.  The Chicago Defender was a popular African American newspaper that encouraged the migration. modern/jb_modern_fairdeal_2_e.jpg

9 Struggles for Justice  In 1881, a former slave, named Booker T. Washington founded the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. At Tuskegee, African Americans were taught skills such as printing, bricklaying, and teaching, which would help them out of poverty.  To fight discrimination, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was founded in 1909 by both blacks and whites. es/naacp2.jpg

10 The Roaring Twenties  About 10 years after World War I the U.S. enjoyed a time of prosperity.  Income was rising, people were making money buying stocks, and living conditions improved for many.  More free time – start of the 8 hour work day.  New appliances – washing machines, irons, and vacuums. ations/U7/images/img_gain.gif

11 Culture  People started listening to jazz music. Rooted in African American culture, jazz is full of striking rhythms and sounds. Duke Ellington helped to give the decade another nickname, “The Jazz Age.”  Many writers tried to capture the special feeling of the Roaring 20s – Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemmingway, William Faulkner, Dorothy Parker, Langston Hughes, Countee Cullen, and Zora Neale Hurston. /3a/Duke_Ellington_hat.jpg mages/items/flapperred.jpg

12 Technology  By the end of the 20s, there was one car on the road for every 5 people. The automobile linked the city and country more closely - school, market, and shopping was easier.  Tourism boomed, and motels (hotel for motorists) started showing up in  The first radio station started broadcasting in People gathered around radios to hear music, news, sporting events, comedy shows, and the 1 st “soap operas.”  People had been enjoying silent films since the early 1900s, but now people were able to enjoy talking pictures (talkies) thanks to Edison.  Al Jolson’s The Jazz Singer appeared in misc/misc/jazz-singer.jpg

13 Technology Continued  Media – types of communication that reaches large numbers of people. For example, radio, newspapers, and magazines.  No TV yet.  Reader’s Digest and Time started during this period.  So begins advertising.  Celebrity fame begins.  Charles Lindberg was the 1 st to fly nonstop and solo across the Atlantic Ocean (NY to Paris). “Lucky Lindy”  Amelia Earhart was the 1 st woman to cross the Atlantic. /amelia_earhart.jpg

14 Women Fight For Suffrage  The fight for suffrage is the right to vote.  In 1870 the 15 th amendment gave African American men the right to vote.  In 1872 Susan B. Anthony and a group of women marched into a polling place in Rochester, NY, and cast their vote for president. They were arrested.  A women’s suffrage amendment was introduced to congress in 1878, but it did not pass.  Women did not give up. It was reintroduced in every session of Congress for the next 40 years.  In 1920 women were given the right to vote with the 19 th amendment.  During WWI women worked in businesses and factories. Once the soldiers returned the women returned to being homemakers. c.edu/history/images/women_suffrag1.jpg

15 The Great Depression  Prosperity ended in 1929 with the crash of the stock exchange, called Black Tuesday.  A stock exchange is a special market where shares of stock are bought and sold.  The prices of stocks began to drop early that fall. This scared investors, so they started selling their stocks. The sudden sales caused prices to fall even more. Investors panicked, and everyone wanted to sell. No one wanted to buy. As a result, stocks became worthless, and many people lost lots of money.  Many banks and businesses failed. Thousands of Americans lost their savings and jobs.  Some people lost all their money, so they couldn’t buy goods or services.  Companies and factories had to shut down. cll/The%20Great%20Depression%20 PK/stockmarketcrash.jpg

16 Hard Times  Many families lost their homes because of the shortage of jobs.  People were unable to pay taxes, so some schools had to close.  Dust Bowl – 150,000 square miles of the Great Plains turned to dust because of a drought. Crops died, and farmers went broke. Black Blizzards (giant dust storms) blew across the plains. s/goddard/images/content/9 5249main_theb13651.jpg

17 Franklin D. Roosevelt  Known as FDR and cousin of Theodore Roosevelt.  In 1921 polio took away the use of his legs.  Married to Eleanor.  Elected president in  In his Inaugural Address he promised to fight the Depression with all the power of the federal government. images/franklin-delano- roosevelt.jpg

18 The New Deal  The New Deal was a program Roosevelt developed to bring about a change in the way the economy worked.  Banks were closed and reopened under government supervision. Loans were given to farmers and business in danger of closing. A system was developed to control the sale of stocks.  Social Security Act – gave financial help to retired Americans and the disabled.  Congress passed a law that gave workers the right to form labor unions.  Minimum wage and standard work weeks of 40 hrs. were established by law.  Fact: The FLSA will increase the federal minimum wage in three steps: to $5.85 per hour effective July 24, 2007; to $6.55 per hour effective July 24, 2008; and to $7.25 per hour effective July 24, story/pics/ssbseal.gif

19 Putting People to Work  Roosevelt created various programs funded by taxes paid to the government to put people back to work.  The Works Progress Administration (WPA) put jobless people to work building schools, libraries, playgrounds, and hospitals. They also employed artists, teachers, and musicians.  The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) hired more than 250,000 young men to maintain the forests.  The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) built bridges, roads, and dams.  The Hoover Dam, named after Herbert Hoover, on the Colorado River was completed in 1936 and helped irrigate soil. It prevented flooding and generated hydroelectricity.  Hydroelectricity is electricity generated by the force of running water. s/usa_pictures/lasvegas/images/Ho over%20Dam.jpg

20 Eleanor, Everywhere  Eleanor Roosevelt traveled throughout the country as an extra set of eyes for FDR.  She wrote a newspaper column called “My Day.”  She also fought hard for civil rights and equality for women. house/images/roosevelt_14.jpg

21 World War II  Power-hungry dictators were taking control.  Dictator – a leader with complete authority over the government.  Benito Mussolini - Italy.  Adolf Hitler and his Nazi – Germany  A group of military officers – Japan  In 1936 they signed a treaty of friendship and called themselves Axis countries.  They expanded their power by invading neighboring countries.  Most Americans hoped we wouldn't get involved. WIIPics/Italy/Mussolini/Mussolini Semi-Profile.jpg

22 Threats to Peace  After the damage of WWI, many countries were afraid of starting another conflict.  September 1, 1939, Hitler invaded Poland.  Great Britain and France (Allies) declared war on the Axis.  In 1940 Hitler controlled all of western Europe except Great Britain. /Adolf%20Hitler.%20(34).jpg

23 Pearl Harbor  A surprise attack by Japan. It drew the U.S. into the war.  Japan was taking over islands in the Pacific Ocean. Part of their plan was to force the U.S. out of this region.  Dec. 7, 1941, the Japanese struck the American base in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.  Japanese bombs destroyed ships, planes, and military supplies.  2,403 Americans were killed.  The next day President Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war on Japan.  Three days later Germany and Italy declared war on the U.S. otos/images/h97000/h97398.j pg

24 Joining the Allies  The U.S. joined the Allies.  Communism is an economic and political system in which all property is owned by the government.  Josef Stalin dictated the Soviet Union.  In 1939 he made a deal with Hitler to keep the 2 countries from fighting.  Hitler double-crossed him and attacked in June  From that point on the Soviet Union fought with the Allies. kipedia/en/4/4d/Stalin_02.jpg

25 War  On the Pacific the Allies fought the Japanese.  In Africa and Europe they fought Germany and Italy.  Over the next 4 yrs. 15 million Americans served in the military.  For the first time women were allowed to join the military.  Factories worked overtime to produce goods for war.  By 1944 American factories produced an average of 263 planes a day.  The employment of women nearly doubled during WWII.  Americans were asked to conserve metal, gasoline, foil, meat, and other items. csci/history/women_wwii.jp g

26 Relocation Camps  After Pearl Harbor many Americans worried about the Japanese Americans living on the west coast – were they loyal?  In 1942, the government made over 100,000 Japanese Americans leave their homes.  Their right to speech and their right to vote were taken away.  They were moved quickly to relocation camps farther inland.  In 1988 the U.S. government issued an official apology for its actions. pointsofview/patriot-boys.jpg

27 Battles Around the World  The Allies pushed back their enemies from 1943 to  The Axis had stopped expanding and was on defense.  Dwight D. Eisenhower planned a massive invasion on June 6, 1944 (D-Day).  The term D-Day is used for the day and hour on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. D-Day  Thousands of troops landed at Normandy, France.  Fighting was fierce – many died.  The Allies pushed east toward Germany while the Soviet Union pushed west.  Berlin, Germany, fell on April 16, Germany surrendered on May 7. The war in Europe was over. trail.com/USA/d-day-omaha- beach2.jpg

28 Holocaust  In concentration camps Germans enslaved and murdered those people they considered their enemies.  12 million men, women, and children died.  ½ of the victims were Jews.  The attempt to destroy the Jewish people is known as the Holocaust. /staffpages/jschnell/holocaust %20prisoners.jpg

29 Japan Surrenders  In 1945 Americans struck against Japan and captured two of Japan’s islands, Iwo Jima and Okinawa.  President Roosevelt died in  Harry S. Truman became president and had to decide – invasion or atomic bomb?  He decided to drop the bomb to spare lives of those who would die in battle.  Hiroshima – at least 100,000  Nagasaki – 70,000  World War II was over. vents/images/atomicbombhiroshi ma.gif

30 Cold War  After the war the U.S. was very successful.  President Truman had lot’s of ideas like raising minimum wage, creating housing for poor people, helping veterans, and ending segregation.  BUT, Truman was worried about the Cold War with the Soviet Union.  Cold War – a war fought with ideas, words, money, and sometimes force.  The U.S. and the Soviet Union were the 2 most powerful countries – “superpowers.” They became enemies after WWII. guevara/che-guevara- soviet-union-flag- posterflag jpg

31 The “Iron Curtain”  Soviet Union sent troops into Eastern Europe and put these countries under their rule – communism.  In 1949 the U.S. and the countries of Western Europe formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) to fight the spread of communism.  President Truman sent $13 billion in food and goods to help Western Europe after WWII. This was called the Marshall Plan. es/images/ironcurtain.pn g

32 Korean War  North Korea led a surprise attack on South Korea to unite the 2 countries by force.  On July 5 U.S. troops rushed to help South Korea.  16 countries sent soldiers to South Korea under the leadership of the United Nation (UN).  The UN was formed after WWII.`  The UN was an organization created to keep world peace, promote justice, and protect human rights.  Forces kept North Korea from overpowering South Korea.  North Korea was mainly helped by China and the Soviet Union while South Korea had help from the UN and mainly America. if/united-nations-trustee- council.jpg

33 The Arms Race  In early 1950s the U.S. and Soviet Union were in a costly race to build the world’s most powerful weapons.  Many people feared that a war involving nuclear weapons might end all life on the earth.  Some families built bomb shelters.  People were afraid of the Soviet Union.  Senator Joseph McCarthy tried to rid the country of people whether they were communists or not.  The word McCarthyism is used today to describe false accusations made to damage people because of the political beliefs. gonhistory/_files/_doc_files/Mr%2 0&%20Mrs%20CT%20Higgins%20 Bomb%20Shelter%20P260.jpg


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