Presentation on theme: "A New Role for America 1867-1914. New Territories At the end of the 1800s, the United States wanted to show the world it was a powerful country. In 1912,"— Presentation transcript:
A New Role for America
New Territories At the end of the 1800s, the United States wanted to show the world it was a powerful country. In 1912, Congress bought Alaska from Russia, and Alaska became the 49 th state. In 1959, Hawaii became the 50 th state.
The Spanish-American War The United States showed the world it was becoming more powerful when it added Alaska and Hawaii. Some American leaders wanted to build an empire with colonies in other parts of the world. When nations build empires by adding colonies, it is called imperialism. A conflict with Spain would add new territories to the United States.
The Spanish-American War In 1895, the Spanish colony of Cuba revolted against Spain. American newspapers wrote stories about how Spain treated Cubans cruelly during the revolt. These stories were yellow journalism, a kind of writing that exaggerates news to shock and attract readers. In 1898, the U.S. Navy ship Maine exploded in a Cuban harbor. Americans blamed Spain, and Congress declared war on Spain. In August of 1898, Spain surrendered and agreed to give Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and Guam to the United States. These countries became territories of the U. S. Cuba became independent. GPS SS5H3c
Building the Panama Canal President Theodore Roosevelt wanted to build a canal to link the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The best place for the canal was at the Isthmus of Panama, the narrowest point in central America. Panama was part of the nation of Colombia. Colombia did not want to sell Panama. Roosevelt helped Panama win independence from Colombia. The new leaders of Panama let the U.S. build the canal in GPS SS5H3c
Causes of World War I In the 1900s, nationalism (the belief that your country deserves more success than others) made countries such as Germany, Russia, and France compete for land and power. Some nations practiced imperialism and started colonies. Nations wanted to protect their empires, so they made their armies and navies stronger. Militarism became popular. It is the building of a strong military to frighten or defeat other countries. Nationalism, imperialism, and militarism were all causes of World War I.
Causes of World War I An alliance is an agreement nations make to support and defend each other. During this time, countries make alliances with each other. The two most important alliances were the Allied Powers and the Central Powers. In 1914, Austria-Hungary, a Central Power, declared war on Serbia. Serbia had an alliance with Russia, so Russia joined the war. Then Germany, a Central Power, invaded Belgium and France. France was allied with Russia. Because of their alliances, many countries joined the war.
Central and Allied Powers
America Enters the War At first, most Americans did not want the United States to join the war. In 1915, Germany sank the Lusitania, a British passenger ship that was carrying many Americans. Americans were angry, but Germany promised not to attack more passengers ships. In 1917, Germany broke its promise and attacked American ships. The United States declared war on the Central Powers. GPS SS5H4a
America Enters the War The war was fought using poison gas, machine guns, hand grenades, and cannons that fired large shells through the air. They fought using airplanes, submarines, and army tanks. World War I was the largest war that had ever been fought. Millions of soldiers and civilians died. Video (30 minutes)
The Home Front Soldiers needed many things to fight World War I. The U.S. government created more supplies for soldiers by putting rations on civilian goods. Rations are limits set by the government on the amount of goods that the U.S. people could have (like meat). Many men were in Europe, fighting the war. The factories needed new workers. Thousands of African Americans left the South to take factory jobs in the North. Women also took new jobs. Women worked at jobs that men normally did. The work women did convinced many people that women should gain the right to vote. In 1920, The 19 th Amendment allowed women the right to vote. GPS SS5GC3
The War Ends In 1917, when the United States joined the war, about 1 million American soldiers went to France. Finally, the Central Powers realized they could not win. They signed an armistice. An armistice is an agreement to stop fighting. The war ended in In 1919, Allied leaders met in France to write a treaty. The treaty was called the Treaty of Versailles. Some European leaders blamed Germany for the fighting in western Europe. They used the treaty to punish Germany. The treaty forced Germany to give up its overseas colonies, give land to France, and pay money to Allied nations. GPS SS5H4a
The War Ends continued The Treaty of Versailles also created the League of Nations. President Wilson supported the League and thought it would help prevent war by solving problems peacefully. Forty-two nations joined. The United States did not, because the Senate worried that the U.S. might get pulled into more wars if they joined.