3Economic Terms You Should Know Free enterprise system – type of economy where government has little power and people run their own businesses.Supply and demand –Profit – the amount of money a person or company makes in a time period.Government Regulation – government ability to control business or help the economy.
4The Great Depression Date: October 1929 – start of World War II During the 1920’s, businesses prospered in America. Many people bought stocks in companies, hoping to make a profit at a later date.It was found that many people’s stocks weren’t worth what they had paid for them. In late October 1929, there was a rush on the stock market, and the panic led to a stock market crash – called Black Tuesday.Many people lost all of their savings. Banks closed and businesses went bankrupt. By 1933, 15 million Americans were unemployed.
6Causes of the Great Depression People were selling stocks for more than they were worth, and when this was found out, everyone tried to sell their stocks at once, making their value plummet!Farmers were overproducing many crops, (remember supply and demand?) so since there were more crops than people wanted, the prices of those crops fell.
8The Dust BowlDate:During the Great Depression, farmers could grow most of their own food, but the prices of crops dropped. They were not making a profit.After years of ranching and farming, over-grazing and working the land dried out the soil and destroyed the native grasses that kept the soil in place. When the spring winds came, huge dust storms were created.Parts of the Great Plains were then called the Dust Bowl. The huge dust storms ruined crops and killed thousands of cattle. It took these areas years to recover.
11Economic Impacts of the Great Depression and Dust Bowl on Texas Since people couldn’t buy items, prices dropped. Businesses closed because they weren’t making a big enough profit to pay their employees.Texas agriculture industry suffered because of the Dust Storm. Crops wilted and animals died.Funding for education and other government programs were cut.
12Social Impacts of the Great Depression and Dust Bowl on Texas Family businesses closed, causing poverty and strain for families.Many North Texas and Panhandle Texans migrated to California, hoping for work. Some did not ever come back to Texas.Families had to go to soup kitchens for food and take other types of charity from wealthy individuals.
13Political and Geographic Impacts of the Great Depression and Dust Bowl The government had to think of ways to help Americans.The government had to pass laws to help farmers survive.Farmers had to change their techniques to save the soil. They began practicing crop rotation and using irrigation when droughts occurred.Texans planted trees and other types of vegetation in the Texas Panhandle to prevent erosion.
14New DealPresident Franklin D. Roosevelt promised American’s a “New Deal” and a way out of poverty with the help of the government. Through government regulation and programs, laws were passed and jobs were created to help families get back on their feet. New Deal programs employed over 100,000 Texans, while they built and repaired bridges, dams, roads, and parks.
15New Deal ProgramsCCC (Civilian Conservation Corp) – gave jobs to unskilled workers by helping to conserve and develop natural resources in rural America. Jobs in the CCC included: creating fire lookout towers, fixing and creating roads, helping with flood and erosion control, help with forest conservation and protection, and other wildlife jobs.
16Other New Deal Programs PWA (Public Works Administration) – created jobs by hiring people to build dams, warships, bridges, hospitals, and schools.WPA (Works Progress Administration) –created jobs by hiring people to build and operate large arts, drama, media, and literacy projects, like public libraries.Social Security – provides payments for retired Americans and benefits for the unemployed.